Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






Natural Method of Outdoor Cultivation: On logs of broad-leaf hardwoods, especially beech, poplar and
assorted deciduous oaks, a la the method for Shiitake. Because of the high moisture requirement for this
mushroom, partially burying the logs in a high peat moss soil base is recommended.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass toAchieve Fruiting: Spawn is quickly generated with liquid inoculation of grain from petri dish cultures. The grain spawn can be exponentially
expanded two generations using standard grain-to-grain inoculations. Intermediate sawdust spawn can
then be produced from the grain spawn for final inoculation into supplemented hardwood sawdust For
many cultivators, going from grain spawn to supplemented sawdust is an easier, and more direct approach.

Suggested Agar Culture Media: MBA, MYA, PDYA and DFA.

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media: Grain spawn throughout.
Substrates for Fruiting: The supplemented sawdust formula described in Chapter XVII is recommended. Arita (1969) recommends that no more than 10% rice bran be used as a supplement for oak
hardwood formulations. However, I have found that 20% rice bran supports a more massive first flush
and second flush when using Alnus rubra (red alder). Arita also found that the addition of 15% rice

bran was the optimum if using conifer sawdust (Pin us densiflora—Asian Pine and Cryptomeria
japonica—Japanese Cedar) as the base substrate.) This is one of the few gourmet mushrooms that
will give rise to substantial fruitings on conifer wood.
Recommended Containers for Fruiting: Autoclavable bottles and polypropylene bags.
Yield Potentials: The fruitings pictured in this book yielded, on the first flush, an average of slightly
more than 1 lb. of mushrooms from 5 lb. blocks of hardwood sawdust supplemented with rice bran.

Form of Product Sold to Market: Primarily fresh mushrooms are sold. An interesting, tasteful, if
not elegant mushroom, Pholiota nameko is a mushroom well worth cultivating. Whether or not its
marketing in North America will be successful is another question. P nameko is
popular in Japan. Its flavor is so distinct and appealing as to win over the squeamishly skeptical.

Nutritional Content: Crude protein ( N x 4.38): 20.8%; fat: 4.2%; carbohydrate: 66.7%; ash: 8.3%;
and fiber: 6.3%. Vitamins (in milligrams per 100 grams dry weight): thiamine: 18.8; riboflavin 14.6;
niacin 72.9. Minerals (in milligrams per 100 grams dry weight): calcium: 42; potassium: 2083; iron:
22.9; sodium: 63.

Medicinal Properties: According toYing (1987), water and sodium hydroxide extracts of this mushroom are 60% & 90% effective, respectively, against Sarcoma 180 implanted in white mice. Further,
resistance to infection by Staphylococcus bacteria is substantially improved. No parallel studies by
Western researchers are known to this author. The references making these medical claims are in Chinese.
Flavor, Preparation & Cooking: A very slimy mushroom—a feature that has caused less consternation
in Asia than in North America. Nameko is easily diced into miniature cubes and can be used imaginatively
in a wide variety of menus, from stir fries to miso soups.Although pleasantly satisfying when lightly cooked,

I prefer the strong flavor that thorough cooking evokes. Once the glutinous slime is cooked away, the
mushroom becomes quite appetizing, having a crunchy and nutty/mushroomy flavor.

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