Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
12

THE ROLE OF MUSHROOMS IN NATURE

commonly cultivated mushroont* Another
example is Stropharia ambigua which invades outdoor mushroom beds after wood
chips have been first decomposed by a pri-

Tertiary Decomposers: An amorphous
group, the fungi represented by this group are
typically soil dwellers. They survive in habi-

tats that are years in the making from the
activity of the primary and secondary decomposers. Fungi existing in these reduced
substrates are remarkable in that the habitat
appears inhospitable for most other mush-

rooms. A classic example of a tertiary
decomposer is Aleuria aurantia, the Orange
Peel Mushroom. This complex group of fungi
often pose unique problems to would-be cultivators. Panaeolus subbalteatus is yet another
it on

composted substrates, this mushroom has the
reputation of growing prolifically in the dis-

carded compost from Button mushroom
farms. Other tertiary decomposers include
and
species of Conocybe, Agrocybe,
some Agaricus species.
The floor of a forest is constantly being re-

plenished by new organic matter. Primary,
secondary and tertiary decomposers can all
occupy the same location. In the complex environment of the forest floor, a "habitat" can
actually be described as the overlaying of several habitats mixed into one. And, over time, as
each habitat is being transformed, successions
of mushrooms occur. This model becomes infinitely complex when taking into account the

*

(yeasts, bacteria, protozoa), plants, insects
and mammals.

Primary and secondary decomposers af-

mary saprophyte.

example. Although one can grow

inter-relationships of not only the fungi to one
another, but the fungi to other micro-organisms

The cultivation of this mushroom is covered in detail in The

Mushroom Cultivator (1983) by Stamets & Chilton.

ford the most opportunities for cultivation. To
select the best species for cultivation, several
variables must be carefully matched.

Climate, available raw materials, and the
mushroom strains all must interplay for cultivation to result in success. Native species are
the best choices when you are designing outdoor mushroom landscapes.
Temperature-tolerant varieties of mushrooms are more forgiving and easier to grow
than those which thrive within finite tempera-

ture limits. In warmer climates, moisture is
typically more rapidly lost, narrowing the opportunity for mushroom growth. Obviously,
growing mushrooms outdoors in a desert climate is more difficult than growing

mushrooms in moist environments where
they naturally abound. Clearly, the site selection of the mushroom habitat is crucial. The
more exposed a habitat is to direct mid-day
sun, the more difficult it is for mushrooms to
flourish.
Many mushrooms actually benefit from in-

direct sunlight, especially in the northern
latitudes. Pacific Northwest mushroom hunt-

ers have long noted that mushrooms grow
most prolifically, not in the darkest depths of a
woodlands, but in environments where shade
and dappled sunlight are combined. Sensitivity studies to light have established that
various species differ in their optimal response
to wave-bands of sunlight. Nevertheless, few

mushrooms enjoy prolonged exposure to direct sunlight.

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