Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
GROWTH PARAMETERS

249

In Japan, H. tessulatus is marketed under the

name of "Yamabiko Hon-shimeji" or just
"Hon-shimeji". In the United States, this spe-

cies is simply marketed under the name
"Shimeji". Adding to the confusion, the name
"Buna-shimeji" was first applied by Imazeki to
Lyophyllum ulmarius (= H. ulmarius) but now
is used in exclusive reference to Hypsizygus
marmoreus (= H. tessulatus). (See Nagasawa
&Arita, 1988.)
Description: Mushrooms hemispheric to
plane, spotted to marbled with "water-spots"

on the cap, measuring 2-7 cm. Cap margin
inrolled to incurved when young. Mushrooms

dark tan, becoming gray tawny brown to
creamy brown when mature. Gills bluntly attached to the stem, close, firm, and "wax-like".

Stem thick, centrically or eccentrically attached, often tapering towards the base, with
variable lengths depending on the method of

Figure 220. Wild fruiting of H. tessulatus from cleft
in a cottonwood tree.

cultivation.

Distribution: Throughout the temperate hardwood forests of Europe, Asia and North America.
Natural Habitat: A saprophyte on elms, beech, cottonwoods, maple, willow, oak and other hardwoods. I
of dying cottonwoods. Like many Oyster mushhave found this mushroom arising from clefts in the
rooms, this species can behave either as a facultative parasite on dying hardwoods or a true saprophyte on
dead trees. (The wild fruiting featured in Figure 215 is from a dying cottonwood).

Microscopic Features: Spores white, spherical to egg-shaped, relatively small, 4.0-6. 5 x 3.5-5. Op.
Clamp connections numerous. Hyphal system monomitic.

Available Strains: Strains are available from Japanese, American and Canadian culture libraries.
Strains range from white to grey to black and are typically darker when young and/or when grown
under cool conditions. Those who have patented strains of Hon-shimeji could be referring to H.
tessulatus, H. ulmarius or a Lyophyilum species, depending on the taxonomic system they were following. Strains are easily cloned from wild specimens. DAOM #190991 is a light colored Canadian
strain, one of several strains featured in this book. (See Figure 223). Strains vary in their duration to
fruiting, in the color of the mushrooms at maturity and in their response to carbon dioxide levels.
Mycelial Characteristics: Mycelium white, cottony, resembling P. ostreatus mycelium but not as
aerial. Also, the mycelium of H. tessulatus does not exude the yellowish-orange metabolite nor does it
form the classically thick, peelable mycelium, two features that are characteristic of Pleurotus species.

Fragrance Signature: Sweet, rich, not anise-like, but oyster-esque, and pleasing.

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