Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
246

GROWTH PARAMETERS

The Beech Mushrooms
(Bunashimeji and Shirotamogitake) of the Genus HypsizyguS
summed up by the Japanese phrase "for fraThe rich flavor of the Shimeji mushroom can be
However, the name "Shimeji" is widely used to describe
grance, Matsutake; for flavor, Shimeji".
"on wet ground". For years, the general
some of the best Japanese gourmet mushrooms that grow
causing widespread confusion
name Shimeji has been assigned to about 20 mushroom species,
amongst amateur and professional mycologists.
clarify what is the "true Shimeji" which
Recently, a number of scientific articles have attempted to
(1990); Nagasawa &Arita (1988)).The

the Japanese call Hon-shimeji. (See Clemencon & Moncalvo
shimeji (Kawam.) Hongo. This speHon-shimeji of Japan is actually a Lyophyllum, i. e Lyophyllum
researchers at the Mori Mushroom Institute,
cies is not commercially cultivated, and according to
*
1993). The confusion is understandable because
may even be a mycorrhizal species. (Motohashi,
similar to Hypsizygus tessulatus, known in Japan
young specimens of Lyophyllum shimeji look very
as Buna-shimeji or the Beech Mushroom.
Singer and contains two excellent, edible and
The Genus Hypsizygus was first described by Rolf
Americans (Singer, 1986), these mushrooms are
choice mushrooms. Collected in the wild by Native
this genus are generally saprophytes,
otherwise not well known to other North Americans. Species in
elms and beeches, are dying from
but can become "facultative parasites" when trees, particularly
high up on the trunks of trees, making the
other diseases. These mushrooms have a tendency to grow
unathletic. (Hypsi- means "on high or
collecting of wild specimens difficult for the unprepared or
tessulatus

known in this Genus, H.
aloft" and -zygus means "yoke".) Only two species are
brown rot of hardwoods.

(Bull.:Fries) Singer and H. ulmarius (Bull.:Fries) Redhead. Both cause a
mushrooms out-class the Oyster varieties
Firmer fleshed than most Pleurotus species, Hypsizgus
in terms of flavor and texture. Here
commonly cultivated by North American and European growers
cultivating Hypsizygus. Recent Japanese reagain, the Japanese are credited for first commercially
growth when consumed. (Ikekawa,
search shows that H. tessulatus may be active in retarding tumor
medicinal
properties.
1990). Studies are on-going to more precisely determine their
and
to
a
lesser
degree Pleurotus. These
The Genus Hypsizygus most closely resembles Lyophyllum
of features. First, Hypsizygus and Pleurotus typitaxa are separated by the following combination
the ground, in soils rich in woody
cally grow on wood, above ground level. Lyophyllum grows on within the basidia, a feature that is
debris. Furthermore, Hypsizygus species lack numerous granules
siderophilous, i.e. the grancharacteristic of members in the Genus Lyophyllurn. (These granules are
mycologists to bring out internal cell features.)
ules become apparent in acetocarmine, a stain used by
and more ovoid in shape compared to the
Hypsizygus spores are small, generally less than 7 microns,

find it more likely that L. shimeji depends upon soil microflora for fruitbody
Stropharia rugoso-annulata than being a mycorrhizal species.

* I

formation in the same manner as

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor