Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






short period of time. At a recent mycological society gathering, the addition of finely chopped Enoki
to a cream sauce, stems and all, resulted in a crerne
Comments: This mushroom is the classic example of the influences light and carbon dioxide have on
fruitbody formation. Like Oyster mushrooms, this mushroom's appearance is contingent upon the
environment in which it was grown. The growing room environment can be tuned to elicit the perfect
crop. Over time, experienced growers can orchestrate flushes with precision and generate cluster-

bouquets of golden mushrooms. Properly managed, each bundle achieves a remarkably similar
Under outdoor conditions (moderate light/low C02), this mushroom is short-stemmed with caps as
wide as the stems are long. The lower regions of the stem develop a darkened fuzz, hence the common
name "The Velvet Foot". Under the lighted, high carbon dioxide conditions, the stems greatly elongate and are yellow to white in color. The caps remain relatively small. While CO2 determines the
length of the stem, light is an overriding factor in influencing the formation and development of the
cap. Thus under high CO2 and no light conditions, thin stems may form usually without any caps.
Most strains behave in this fashion but responses vary. Depending on the surrounding environment,
the stems can be as short as 1 inch to as long as 12 inches. The cap to stem ratio varies from 1:1 to
1:100. This range in the shape of the fruitbody is remarkable.

The surface mycelium undergoes a radical
transformation during the period of pre-primordia

formation. The mycelium yellows, and then
forms dingy, blemished brown and white zones,
which soon evolve into a roughened, beaded surface. From this micro-landscape, a high
population of minute, squat, yellow primordia
emerge. The mushrooms appear virtually

stemless. If carbon dioxide levels are kept el-

evated, above 5,000 ppm., significant stem
elongation continues. Japanese cultivators have
invented the technique of fruiting in bottles that
are topped with a cylindrical insert of clear plastic
or paper. The cylinder pools carbon dioxide and
the stems elongate. This technique encourages the

formation of highly uniform flushes of mushrooms in each bottle.

For more information on the development of
Figure 210. A Japanese Enoki-take cultivator.

the mushroom strains in response to humidity 1evels, see McKnight (1985, 1990, 1992).

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