Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
216

GROWTH PARAMETERS

on its conquest of nutrients, and fruitings are
delayed until colonization is complete. Substrates that are carefully and evenly inoculated
colonize faster, responding readily to the four
environmental stimuli described above. When
the rapidly growing mycelium is forced to stop

because of natural borders or contact with
competitors the mycelium shifts gears—
biologically speaking—from conquest to
consoli-dation. The mycelium consolidates its

hold of the substrate by the infinite micro-

scopic branching of hyphae. Concurrent with
this phase change, the mycelium and the substrate cools. For Oyster mushroom cultivators,
this period of declining temperature leads directly to primordia formation. At this juncture,
the cultivator adjusts the surrounding environment—introducing light, dropping temperature,

exchanging air, and increasing moisture—to
stimulate the greatest number of primordia.

Some mycologists take a different view of
what causes this shift to fruiting in the mushroom
life cycle. They describe the sudden lack of food
for the mycelium asnutrientdepri vation. The best

example of this is the Morel. Once the scierotia
have formed remote from the nutrient base, the
nutrient base is physically separated from the
sclerotial colonies, and this loss of nutrition is one
of the triggers stimulating fruitbody formation.
(This is basically the pivotal technique upon
which the patent was awarded for growing motels—see Oweret at, 1978). In my mind, this is a
clear case of tme nutrient deprivation. However,
substrate separation techniques are not generally
used in the cultivation of Oyster, Shlitake, Enoki,
Lion's Mane, Maitake, Wood Ear and many of the

Initiation Temperature Chart
100
96

T
e

92

m

88

p
e
r

a

t

84
80
76

U

r
e

(°F)

72
68
64

60

Days after Inoculation
• Bed Temperature

e Air Temperature

Note that bed temperature
Figure 191. Chart of air ys. substrate ("bed") temperature during colonization.
constant. An initiation strategy
completed
while
air
tempeature
remains
naturally declines as colonization is
instigated to augment the
(i.e. dropping temperature, adding moisture, increasing light and exchanging air) is
mycelium's natural progression to fruiting.

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor