Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






easily shift from colonization to primordia formation.
An advantage of this method is that mushrooms, when they do form, arise from the most
mature mycelium, at the top of the bottles. Side
and bottom fruitings are rare. If the cultivator
can afford to make the initial investment of in-

cubating thousands of bottles until the first
cycle starts, then the drawbacks are primarily
that of lost time and delay in the initial production cycle, but not overall yield. Top-spawning
is fast and convenient for bottle and small bag

culture, although I see more benefits from
through-spawning. Many cultivators in Japan
accelerate the colonization process by inoculating the bottles with pressurized liquid spawn.
With the natural evolution of techniques,
Asian cultivators have replaced bottles with
similarly shaped, cylindrical bags. This hybrid
method is preferred by many growers in Thailand, Taiwan and Japan.
Liquid inoculation of sterilized, supplemented sawdust allows for inoculation methods
resembling the high production systems seen in
a soda pop factory. With re-engineering, such
high speed assembly line machinery could be

retrofitted for commerical bottle and bag cultivation. Unless an aggregate-Slurry is used,
liquid spawn settles near to the bottom of the
bottles. (For a complete discussion of liquid fermentation and inoculation techniques, please
refer to Chapter 15). Bottles can be arranged
horizontally in walls or fruited vertically. In Japan, bottle culture is the method preferred by
many cultivators in the growing of Yamabiko
Hon-shimeji or Buna-shimeji (Hypsizygus
tessulatus varieties), Shirotamogitake (Hypsizygus ulmarius), Enokitake (Flainmulina
velutipes) and Reishi (Ganodernia lucidum).

Bottles of various sizes can be used. The
most common are between 1 quart (1 liter)
and 1 gallon (4 liters). The openings are usually between 50-100 mm. in diameter. Glass
bottles are not as popular as those made from
polypropylene-like materials. Each bottle is
fitted with foiled cotton or an autoclavable lid
equipped with a microporous filter disc. After
full colonization, the lids are removed, and
the surface mycelium is exposed to the growing room environment. Enoki growers often

insert a coil of paper or clear plastic to encourage stem elongation.

"megablocks" for the cultivation of the ButFigure 181. Compacted compost formed to create self-supporting
of cultivation is being patented. (U.K.
ton Mushroom, Agaricus brunnescens. This ingenious, British method
Patent #953006987.1) The cavities allow transpiration and prevent anaerobic cores.

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