Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






latedsubstrate.An 8-ft. longcolumn, l2inches
in diameter, tightly packed can weigh 120-150
lbs. depending upon moisture content, density
(determined largely by particle or"chop" size),
and spawn rate.
After the top folds of the column have been
secured, the column should be inverted, upside
down.The loosely packed substrate that was in
the top 2 feet of the column is now at the bottom and the dense substrate at the bottom of the
column is now switched to the top. This, in effect, packs the column tightly. If the straw is not
tightly pressed against the plastic, causing substantial cavities, mushrooms form behind the

plastic and develop abnormally. In contrast,
tight fills cause the substrate and plastic to be
forcibly in contact with one another. When an
arrowhead puncture is made, the plastic bursts.
The mycelium is exposed to the growing room's

oxygen rich, humidified atmosphere. Given
proper lighting and temperature conditions, a
population of primordia form specific to each
puncture site. Growers using this technique
develop a particular fondness for strains which

are site-specific to the punctures in their response to standard initiation strategies.
Once the column is removed from the inoculation station, two people carry or trolley it to
the growing room, where it is hung and allowed
to incubate. Overhead trolley systems similar

to those employed in slaughter houses, cold
storage rooms, even clothes dry-cleaner companies can be adapted for this purpose. If the
columns are carried, care must be taken so that
the columns do not sag in the middle, lest they
break. Modified hand-trucks fitted with a slant
board are helpful in this regard.

The columns are hung to approximately 4
inches above the floor. After hanging, they noticeably stretch within a few seconds to become

substantially floor supported. Columns (10

Figure 176. Bottle culture ot a aark gray strain 01
Hypsizygus tessulatus, known in Japan as Bunashimeji or Yamabiko Hon-shimeji. This mushroom

is currently being marketed in America as just
"Shimeji". The Japanese prefer to use the Latin
name Hypsizygus marmoreus for this mushroom.
For more information, please consult Chapter 21.

inches in diameter and greater) suspended in the
air after inoculation will probably fall before the
cropping cycle is completed.

Directly after the columns have settled to
the floor, within 1 hour, numerous holes must

be punched for aeration. If holes are not
punched until the next day, substantial loss of
spawn viability occurs, and a bacterial bloom
ensues in the stagnant, air-deprived column.
However, if the column is suspended and holes
are punched too soon, the punctures elongate
and the column soon is in danger of splitting
apart. For an 8 ft. high column, 12 inches in diameter, at least 200 and no more than 400 1/8

in. holes should be punched for maximum
yield. Stainless steel, four bladed arrowheads,
mounted on a board are recommended for this

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