Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

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CROPPING CONTAINERS

Slanted Wall or "A" Frame
Culture

Slanted walls are constructed by stacking bags
of inoculated substrate to build sloped faces. An
advantage of the slanted wall is that a higher density of fill can be achieved within a given growing
room space and harvesting is easier. A disadvantage is that mushrooms are limited to forming on
only one plane- the outwardly exposed surface.
In comparison, blocks that are spaced apart give
rise to fruitings on 5 planes: the four sides andthe
top, a response seen especially with Shiitake and

Oyster mushrooms.
Many cultivators find that a wall composed of
individually wrapped blocks limits cross-contamination from infected units. Isolation of the
blocks, or for that matter any fruiting container,

has distinct advantages, both in terms of yield
enhancement and contamination containment.

Bag Culture

In the search for inexpensive, portable, and

disposable containers, plastic bags have
became the logical choice. High temperaturetolerant polypropylene bags are primarily used
for processing wood-based substrates which
require higher temperature treatment than the
cereal straws. Once cooled and inoculated, sterilized substrates are usually filled directly into
heat sensitive polyethylene bags. Mushrooms
fruit from the top or sides.
For the cultivation of most wood decomposers, a biodegradable, heat-tolerant, and

breathable plastic for bag culture is sorely
needed. "Cellophane", a wood cellulose-based
plastic-like material used commonly in the mid
1900's, has some of these features (heat tolerance, gas porosity), but lacks durability. Despite
this shortfall, one of the most appealing aspects

Figure 161. A white Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus
Figure 160. Black Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum, fruiting from wall formation of stacked bags.

ostreatus, fruiting from custom-made plastic
grid-frame.

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