Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






Figure 152. Wooden tray culture of the Button Mushroom (Agaricus

Tray Culture
Growing mushrooms in trays is the traditional
method of cropping, first developed by the Button mushroom (Agaricus) industry. Trays range
in size from small 2 ft. x 3 ft. x 6 in. deep which
can be handled by one person to trays 6 ft. x 10

ft. x 12 in. deep which are usually moved into
place by electric or propane-powered forklifts.
For years, trays have been constructed of treated
or rot-resistant wood. More recently, polycarbonate and steel trays have been introduced with
obvious advantages. Both types are designed to
stack upon each other without additional structural supports.
Trays allow for the dense filling of growing
rooms (up to 25% of the volume) and because
Agaricus brunnescens, the Button Mushroom,
is not photosensitive, no provisions are made
for the equal illumination of the beds' surfaces.
The main advantage of tray culture is in the han-

brunnescens) at a commercial mushroom farm.

dung of substrate mass-filling, transporting,
cropping and dumping. The Dutch are currently
using tray culture for the cultivation of Button,
Shiitake, Oyster and other mushroom species.

Tray culture easily accepts a casing layer.
Casing layers are usually composed of peat
moss, buffered with calcium carbonate, and ap-

plied directly to the surface of a myceliated
substrate. Button mushroom production excels
from the application of a casing layer, whereas
it is debatable whether yields from the wood decomposers are substantially affected. Those
using trays andnotapplying a casing must take
extra precaution to ensure the necessary microclimate for primordia formation. This can be
accomplished by covering the trays with either
a perforated layer of plastic or breathable, anticondensate films. The plastic is stripped off,
depending upon the species, at the time of, or
soon after, primordia formation. Fog-like envi-

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