Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
188

CULTIVATING GOURMET MUSHROOMS

Steam Pasteurization Profile
200

180

T
e

m

160

140

p
e
r

120

a

100

U

80

e

(F)

Phase 11 Temperature Chart
Maximum Temperature C Minimum Temperature

Figure 151. Chart: Temperature Profile of a Phase II Run.

izes the chamber. (Larger Phase II rooms will
require correspondingly higher pressure fans
able to push air over 2-4 inches of static pressure.) The substrate mass slowly cools in 12-24
hours to temperatures tolerable for inoculation,
generally below 105° F. (38° C.).

Before the pasteurization chamber is
opened, the inoculation area is intensively
cleaned with a 10% bleach solution.* To aid the
cleaning process, venturi siphon mixers are ideal
for drawing bleach directly into a hose line at the
faucet connection. Conveyor belts, counter tops,

funnels, ceilings, and walls are all cleansed
with torrents of chlorinated water. Spraying
down the room with such a solution is colloquially termed "bleach bombing" in the industry.
*

Most brand name bleaches have 5.25% sodium

hypochlorite. One tablespoon of bleach in a gallon of
water is roughly equivalent to 200 ppm chlorine. A
cup of bleach per gallon of water is equivalent to 3200
ppm. Most mushroom mycelia are harmed above 200
ppm of chlorine.

Protective clothing is advised for the sanitation
personnel.
Methods vary for the unloading of the Phase

II chamber. Some remove the straw by hand
with clean pitch-forks and throw the straw onto
stainless-steel tables whereupon the inocula-

tion occurs. Conveyors are favored for
substrate handling by many growers. The larg-

est Phase II chambers utilize a netted or
"walking" floor which pulls the substrate mass
into two outwardly rotating, horizontally positioned, teethed cylinders. (See Figure 148). As
the substrate mass is forced into the space be-

tween the two outwardly rotating, spiked
cylinders, the straw is separated and ejected
onto a depressed platform in whose center is a
funnel or ramp that leads to conveyors. (Warning: the danger of personal injury here at this
juncture is notorious. Special precautions must
be implemented to prevent accidents.)After the
straw is thrown into the conveyor belt, grain

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