Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables





Figure 142. Shredding straw.

Figure 143.


simple and easy method for pasteuriz-

ing straw (and other bulk materials). The drum is

rice, oat and sorghum straws are the best. Hay,

resplendent with abundant bunches of seed
kernels, should not be used as the grain kernels tend to contaminate. However, limited
numbers of grain kernels generally boost
yields. Royse (1988) found that yields of Oyster mushrooms from wheat straw are
enhanced by the addition of 20% alfalfa without increasing the risk of contamination.Alfalfa,
by itself, is "too hot" to use because of its elevated nitrogen content. Straw supports all the
gourmet Oyster mushrooms, including
Pleurotus citrinopileatus, P. cystidiosus, P.
djamoi P eryngii, P euosmus, P ostreatus andP
pulmonarius. Other mushrooms, King Stropharia
(Stropharia rugoso-annulata), Shaggy Manes
(Coprinus comatus), the Paddy Straw
(Volvariella volvacea), and Button (Agaricus

spp.) mushrooms also thrive on straw-based
substrates, often benefiting from modest supple-

filled with water and heated with the propane
burner at 160° F. (71° C.) for 1-2 hours.

mentation. The specifics for cultivation of each

of these species are discussed further on, in
Chapter 21.

Heat Treating the
Bulk Substrate
Bulk substrates like straw are generally pas-

teurized (as opposed to sterilized) and upon
cooling, inoculated with grain spawn. Pasteur-

ization selectively kills off populations of
temperature-sensitive micro-organisms. The
population left intact presents little competition to the mushroom mycelium for
approximately two weeks, giving ample op-

portunity for the mushroom mycelium to
colonize. If not colonized within two weeks,
the straw naturally contaminates with other
fungi, irrespective of the degree of pasteuriza-

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