Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
146 GENERATING GRAIN SPAWN
developed spore-mass inoculation techniques to
an industrial level. Only recently have Western
mycologists recognized that a large community of
spore matings behaves quite differently than

paired individuals. San Antonio and Hanners
(1984) are some of the first Western mycolo-

gists to realize that grain spawn of Oyster
mushrooms could be effectively created via
spore-mass inoculation.
The most aggressive strains out-race the least
aggressive strains to capture the intended habi-

tat. Recent studies have shown that these
aggressive strains over-power and invade the
cellular network of competing strains. Dr. Alan
Rayner (1988) in studies at the University of
Bath, described this form of genetic theft as
"non-self fusions" between genetically different mycelial systems within the same species.
This ability to adapt has made fungi one of the
most successful examples of evolution in the
biological arena.
Spore-mass fermentation techniques are not
yet widely used by North American or European cultivators. Concern for preserving strain
stability, lack of experience, equipment, and in-

transfers dilutions of the broth into jars or bags
of sterilized grain. I prefer this technique as it
quickly generates high quality spawn, eliminating several costly steps. Once perfected, most
spawn producers find grain-to-grain transfers
obsolete. The time not spent shaking the spawn
jars frees the cultivator to attend to other chores.
Most importantly, high-quality spawn is realized in a fraction of the time of the traditional
methods. Step-by-step methods are described
in the ensuing paragraphs .The ambient air temperature recommended throughout this process
is 750 F. (24° C.).
Step l.A vigorous, non-sectoring culture incubated in a 100 x 15 mm. petri dish is selected.
This parent culture is subcultured by transfer-

ring one-centimeter squares from the mother
culture to ten blank petri dishes. In effect, ten
subcultures are generated. The cultures incubate until the mycelia reaches approximately 1
cm. from the inside peripheral edge of the petri
dish, more or less describing a 80 mm. diameter mycelial mat.
Step 2. When the cultures have achieved the
aforementioned growth, use the following for-

mushroom culture, intransigence to new ideas has

mula to create a liquid culture media: After
mixing and subdividing 750 ml. of the broth

prevailed, often because the slightest variation

into three 1500 ml. Erlenmeyer flasks, the ves-

tellectual conflict are contributing factors. In

from the norm has resulted in expensive failures.

Liquid Inoculation
Techniques: Mycelial
Fragmentation and
Fermentation
This method differs from the spore-mass in-

oculation techniques in that the starting
material is dikaryotic mycelium, not spores. In
short, the cultivator chops up the mycelium into
thousands of tiny fragments using a high speed
blender, allows the mycelium to recover, and

sels are placed within a pressure cooker
and sterilized for 1-2 hours at 15 psi (252° F.
=121° C.)*
*

With experience, the cultivator will likely want larger

vessels for fermentation. I prefer a 5000-7000 ml.
squat glass flask, into which 2250 ml. of liquid
culture media is placed, sterilized, and inoculated
with 750 ml. of liquid inoculum. When the liquid
volume exceeds 5000 ml. additional measures are
required for adequate aeration, such as peristaltic
pumps pushing air through media filters. The surface
area of the liquid broth should be at least 110mm.!
2000 ml. for sufficient transpiration of gases and
metabolic by-products.

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