Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables




Each Spore-Mass Master can inoculate 100
times its mass. For instance, if one removes a
Shiitake mushroom, 4-5 inches in diameter,
from ajar of sterilized sawdust, and then places
that mushroom into a gallon of sterilized water,
the spore-enriched broth, the Spore-Mass Master, can inoculate 100 gallons of nutrifled liquid
media. The functional range of expansion is
1:25 to 1:200, with a heavier inoculation rate
always resulting in faster growth.After 2-4 days
of fermentation at 75°F. (24° C.), a second stage
of expansion can occur into enriched sterilized

water, resulting in yet another 25-to 200-fold
expansion of mycelial mass.
Success of the fermentation process can be
checked periodically by streaking a 1/10th of
a milliliter across a sterilized nutrient-filled
petri dish and incubating for a few days. (See
Figure 1 18).Additionally, contaminants can be
Figure 118. The termented mycelium is tested for
purity by streaking sample droplets across a nutrient media filled petri dish. 48-72 hours later, pure
colonies of mycelium (or contaminants) are easily

immediately detected through odor and/or
through examination of the liquid sample with
a microscope. Any gases produced by bacteria
or contaminants are easily recognizable, usu-

ally emitting uniquely sour or musty and

contact with water. (See Figure 116). Immediately upon germination, and as the mycelium
grows, respiration cycles engage. Therefore,
the liquid broth must be aerated or the mycehum will be stifled. The method most used by
the fermentation industry is aeration via oil-less

sometimes sickeningly sweet scents.
The liquid spore mass inoculum can be
ferred directly onto sterilized substrates such as
grain, sawdust, straw, cottonseed hulls, etc. If
the liquid inoculum is sprayed, even coloniza-

compressors pushing air through banks of

streams down through the substrate, following
the path of least resistance. Unless this substrate
is agitated to distribute the mycelium, colonization will be uneven, resulting in failure.
Theoretically, the germination of spores in
mass creates multitudes of strains which will
compete with one another for nutrients. This
has been long accepted as one of the Ten Commandments of Mushroom Culture. Scientists in

microporous filters. The air is distributed by a
submerged aerating stone, a perforated water
propellor, or by the turbulence of air bubbles
moving upwards, as in a fish aquarium. As the
mass of the mycelium increases, and as the fil-

ters become clogged with airborne "dust,"
pressure is correspondingly increased to
achieve the same rate of aeration. The vessels
must be continuously vented to exhaust volatile metabolites.

tion occurs. If poured, the liquid inoculum

China, whose knowledge had not been con-

taminated by such pre-conceptions, first

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