Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






are attracted to a particular Oyster mushroom
strain can be considered a genetically determined trait—a feature most cultivators would
like to suppress.
26. Nutritional Composition Mushrooms
are a rich source for amino acids (proteins),
minerals and vitamins,The percentages of these
compounds can vary between strains. Substrate
components contain precursors which can be
digested and transformed into tissue to varying
degrees by different strains. This may explain
why there is such a variation in the protein
analysis of, for instance, Oyster mushrooms.
The analyses are probably correct. The strains
vary in their conversion efficiencies of base substrate components into mushroom flesh.

27. Production of Primary and Secondary
Metabolites A strain's ability to compete may
be directly related to the production of primary
and secondary metabolites. All fungi produce
extracellular enzymes that break down food
sources. Myriads of metabolic by-products are
also generated. These extracellular compounds
are released through the cell walls of the mycehum, enabling the digestion of potential food
sources. Enzymes, such as higninase which
breaks down the structural component in wood,
are extremely effective in reducing complex
carbon chains, including carbohydrates and hydrocarbons.
Secondary metabolites usually occur well after colonization. A good example is the yellow
fluid, the exudate, frequently seen collecting at the
bottom of aged spawn containers. Pleurotus spp.,

Stropharia rugoso-annulata, and Ganoderma
lucidum are abundant producers of secondary me-

acids and
metabolites forestall competition from other fungi and bacteria.




28. Production of Medicinal Compounds
Bound within the cell walls of mushrooms are

chains of heavy molecular weight sugars,
polysacharrides. These sugars compose the
structural framework of the cell. Many mushroom polysacharrides are new to science and
are named for the genus in which they have
been first found, such as lentinan (from

Shiitake, Lentinula edodes), flammulin or
"FVP" (from Enokitake, Flammulina
velutipes), grifolin or grifolan (from Maitake,
Grifolafrondosa), etc. Research inAsia shows
that these cell wall components enhance the
human immune system. Cellular polysaccharides are more concentrated, obviously, in the
compact form of the mushroom than in the
loose network of the mycelium. In traditional
Chinese pharmacopeia, the sexually producing
organ—in this case the mushroom—has long
been viewed as a more potent source for medicine than from its infertile representations.

Cell components other than polysaccharides have been proposed to have medicinal
effects. Strain selection could just as well focus on their molecular yields. Precursors in the

substrate may play determinant roles in the
selective production of these components
when matched with various strains. (Please
refer to Chapter 21.)

PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor