Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
EVALUATING A MUSHROOM STRAIN

119

in 3-5 days at 75° F (24° C.). Oyster strains, under the same conditions typically take 5-10 days
depending on the size of the transfer and other
factors. All other conditions being the same (i.
e. rate of inoculation, substrate, incubation environment) strains taking more than 3 weeks to

colonize nutrified agar media, grain, or bulk
substrates are susceptible to contamination.
With many strains, such as Oyster and Shiitake,
a sufficient body of knowledge and experience

has accumulated to allow valid comparisons.
With strains relatively new to mushroom science, benchmarks must first be established.

3. Quality of the Mycelial Mat Under
ideal conditions, the mycelial mat expands and
thickens with numerous hyphal branches. The
same mycelium under less than perfect conditions, casts a mycelial mat finer and less dense.
Its "hold" on the substrate is loose. In this case,
Figure 96. Healthy mushroom mycelium running
through cardboard.

lation. This is often referred to as "leap off."
Oyster and Morel strains are renowned for their

quick "leap off" after transfer, evident in as
short as 24 hours. Some strains of mushrooms
show poor recovery. These strains are difficult
to grow commercially unless they are re-invigorated through strain development andlor media
improvement.

2. Rate of growth Strains differ substantially in their rate of growth at all stages of the
mushroom growing process. Once the mycehum recovers from the concussion of
inoculation, the pace of cell divisions quickens.
Actively growing mycelium achieves a mycehal momentum, which, if properly managed,
can greatly shorten the colonization phase, and
ultimately the production cycle.
The fastest of the species described in this
book has to be the Morels. Their mycelia typically covers a standard 100 x 15 mm. petri dish

the substrate, although fully colonized, falls
apart with ease. In contrast, a mycelium properly matched with its substrate forms a mat
tenacious in character. The substrate and the
mycelium unify together, requiring consider-

able strength to rip the two apart This is
especially true of colonies of Oyster, King
Stropharia and Psilocybe mushrooms.
Some species of mushrooms, by nature, form
weak mycelial mats. This is especially true of
the initially fine mycelium of Morels.Pholiota
nameko, the slimy Nameko mushroom, generates a mycelium considerably less tenacious
thanLentinula edodes, the Shiitake mushroom,
on the same substrate and at the same rate of inoculation. Once a cultivator recognizes each
species' capacity for forming a mycelial network, recognizing what is a"strong" or"weak"
mycelium becomes obvious.

4. Adaptability to single component, formulated and complex substrates Some strains
are well known for their adaptability to a Va-

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