Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
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EVALUATING A MUSHROOM STRAIN

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Once familiar with a particular culture, varia-

tions from the norm alert the cultivator to
possible genetic decline or mutation.When differences in expression occur, not attributable to

environmental factors such as habitat (substrate) or air quality, the cultivator should be
alarmed. One of the first features in the tell-tale

decline of a strain is "mushroom aborts".

Aborting mushrooms represent failures in the
mushroom colony, as a singular organism, to
sustain total yield of all of its members to full
maturity. The next classic symptom witnessed
with a failing strain is the decline in the population of primordia. Fewer and fewer primordia
appear. Those which do form are often dwarfs
with deformed caps. These are just some of the
features to be wary of should your strain not perform to proven standards.
A good strain is easy to keep, and difficult or

impossible to regain once it senesces. Do not
underestimate the importance ofstock cultures.
And do not underestimate the mutability of a
mushroom strain once it has been developed. I
use the following check-list of 28 features for
evaluating and developing a mushroom strain.
Most of these features can be observed with the
naked eye.

28 Features for Evaluating
and Selecting a Mushroom
Strain

The strain of mushroom, its unique

sensitivities, yield
expressions—is the foundation of any
mushroom farm. When a strain goes bad, production precipitously declines, typically
followed by a proliferation of disease organisms .Theref ore, cultivators must continuously
scrutinize new strains to find candidates wor-

thy of production. Once a strain has been

Figure 95. Grain spawn 3 days and 8 days after

inoculation. Visible recovery of spawn two days af-

ter inoculation is considered good, one day is
considered excellent.

developed, multiple back-ups are made in the
form of test tube slants. Test tube slants insure
long term storage for future use. The cold storage of test tube slants limits the rate of cell
divisions, protecting the strain from mutation
and senescence factors.
Although this list is not all inclusive, and
can be expanded by any knowledgeable cultivator, it reveals much about the goals

cultivators ultimately seek in bringing a
strain into culture. However, the following
list arises from a uniquely human, self-serving perspective: creating food for human
consumption. From an ecological perspective, this list would be considerably altered.
1. Recovery The time for a mushroom
strain to recover from the concussion of inocu-

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