Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
114

THE STOCK CULTURE LIBRARY

Figure 94. Mushroom primordia on malt agar media. Upper left: Ganoderma lucidum, Reishi. Upper right:
Complex.
Agrocybe aegerita, the Black Poplar Mushroom. Lower left: Pleurotus djamor, the Pink Oyster
Lower right: Hericium erinaceus, the Lion's Mane mushroom.
from grain spawn. Odors can constantly be used
Chilton, 1983.)

Fragrance: The sensation most difficult to
describe and yet so indispensable to the experienced spawn producer is that of fragrance.
The mycelium of each species out-gasses vola-

tile wastes as it decomposes a substrate,
whether that sUbstrate is nutrified agar media,
grain, straw, sawdust, or compost. The complexity of these odors can be differentiated by
the human olfactory senses. In fact, each species can be known by afragrance signature. As
the mass of mycelium is increased, these odors
become more pronounced. Although odor is
generally not detectable at the petri dish culture,
it is distinctly noticed when a red-hot scalpel

to check spawn quality and even species identification.

On rye grain, Oyster mycelium emits a
sweet, pleasant, and slightly anise odor.
Shiitake mycelium has an odor reminiscent of
fresh, crushed Shiitake mushrooms. Chicken(Polyporus)
(Laetiporus
of -the-Woods
suiphureus) is most unusual in its fragrance signature: grain spawn has the distinct scent of
butterscotch combined with a hint of maple

syrup! King Stropharia (Stropharia rugosoannulata) has a musty, phenolic smell on grain
but a rich, appealing woodsy odor on sawdust.
mycelium on grain
Maitake

blade touches living mycelium. The sudden

reminds me of day-old, cold corn tortillas!

burst of burned mycelium emits a fragrance that
is specific to each species. More useful to cul-

Worse of all is Enokitake—it smells like week-

tivators is the fragrance signature emanating

amazed by the fact that certain mushrooms pro-

old dirty socks. Mycologists have long been

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