Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

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THE STOCK CULTURE LIBRARY
ability to give rise to volunteer primordia on
nutrified agar media, once characteristic of a
strain, declines or disappears entirely. Speed of
growth decelerates. If not entirely dying out, the

strain is reduced to an anemic state of slow
growth, eventually incapable of fruiting. Prone
to disease attack, especially by parasitic bacteria, the mushroom strain usually dies.

Color: Most mushroom species produce
mycelia that undergo mesmerizing transforma-

tions in pigmentation as they age, from the
youngest stages of growth to the oldest. One
must learn the natural progression of colorations for each species' mycelium. Since the
cultivator is ever watchful for the occurrence of
certain colors which can forebode contamina-

tion, knowing these changes is critical.
Universally, the color green is bad in mushroom

culture, usually indicating the presence of
Figure 92. A strain of the Abalone Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus cystidiosus. This mushroom species
is dimorphic—having an alternative life cycle path
(see Figure 41). The black droplets are resplendent

with spores and are not contaminants.

asexual stage, promptly discarded the cultures
I gave her because they were "contaminated".
(See Figure 92.)
Mushroom strains, once characterized by
rhizomorphic mycelia, often degenerate after
many transfers. Usually the decline in vigor fol-

lows this pattern: A healthy strain is first
rhizomorphic in appearance, and then after
months of transfers the culture sectors, form-

ing diverging "fans" of linear, cottony and
appressed mycelium. Often an unstable strain
develops mycelium with aerial tufts of cottonlike growth. The mycelium at the center of the
petri dish, giving birth to these fans of disparate growth, is genetically unstable, and being
in an active state of decline, sends forth muta-

tion-ridden chains of cells. Often times, the

Figure 93. Miniature mushroom (Gymnopilus
luteofolius) forming on malt agar media. Note proportion of mushroom relative to mycelial mat.

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