Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
106

THE STOCK CULTURE LIBRARY

media.
Of all the mushrooms discussed in this book,
only strains of the Paddy Straw Mushroom,
Volvariella volvacea, should not be chilled. V
volvacea demonstrates poor recovery from cold
340
storage—both from simple refrigeration at
F. (2° C.) or immersion in liquid nitrogen at 3000 F.
C.). When the mycelium of this
tropical mushroom is exposed to temperatures
below 45° F. (7. 2° C.) drastic die-back occurs.
Strains of this mushroom should be stored at no
less than 50° F. (10° C.) and tested frequently
for viability. When cultures are to be preserved

for prolonged periods alt room temperature,
many mycologists cover the mycelium with liq-

uid paraffin. (For more information, consult
Jinxia and Chang, 1992).

When retrieving cultures from prolonged
storage, the appearance of the cultures can immediately indicate potential viability or clear
inviability. If the mycelium is not aerial, but is
flat, with a highly reflective sheen over its sur-

face, then the culture has likely died. If the
culture caps have not been sealed, contaminants, usually green molds, are often visible,
giving the mycelium a speckled appearance.
These cultures make re-isolation most difficult.
Generally speaking, success is most often seen
with cultures having aerial, cottony mycelium.
Ultimately however, cultivators can not determine viability of stored cultures until they are
subcultured into new media and incubated for
one to three weeks.

The Stamets 'P" Value
System for Age

Determination of a Strain
The Stamets "P" value system is simply an
arithmetic scale I have devised for measuring
the expansion of mycelium through successive

Figure 85. An

(Flammulina velutipes) cul-

ture is labelled to indicate genus, species, variety,
"P" value, voucher collection number, and—if necessary—type of medium.

inoculations from one 100 x 15 mm. petri dish
to the next.The number of cells divisions across
a petri dish is affected by the range of cell wall
lengths. Of the septate strains of fungi, some
have cells as short as 20 while others have
cells 200 and longer. The Stamets "P" Value
(SPV) benefits cultivators by indicating how
close to the origin their culture is at any point
in time by simply recording the number of petri
dishes the mycelium has grown across. When
a culture has been isolated from contaminants,
usually in one or two transfers, the first pure
culture is designated as P1. When the mycelium
has filled that dish, the next dish to receive the
mycelium is called P2. Each culture is labelled
with the date, species, collection number, strain
code, P-Value and medium (if necessary) .Thus,
a typical example from one of my culture dishes

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