Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
CULTURING MUSHROOM MYCELIUM ON AGAR MEDIA

93

room and placed into a sterilized, nutrient en-

riched medium. If the transfer technique is
successful, the cultivator succeeds in capturing

a unique strain, one exhibiting the particular
characteristics of the contributing mushroom.
These features, the expression thereof, are
called the phenotype. By cloning, you capture
the phenotype. Later, under the proper cultural
conditions, and barring mutation, these same

features are expressed in the subsequently

Figure 70. Glove boxes are considered "old tech".
To retrofit a glove box into a laminar flow hood,
simply cut out the back panel, replace with a similarly sized HEPA filter and build a 6"-deep plenum
behind the filter. A squirrel cage blower is mounted
on top, forcing air into the plenum. Air is forced
through the filter. Downstream from the filter, a ster-

ile wind flows in which inoculations can be
conducted.

With the micron filters mounted horizontally,

and facing the cultivator, every movement is
prioritized by degree of cleanliness. The

cleanest articles remain upstream, the next
cleanest downstream in second position, etc.

The cultivator's hands are usually furthest
downwind from the media and cultures.

Starting a Mushroom Strain
by Cloning

grown mushrooms.
Several sites on the mushroom are best for
taking clones. First, a young mushroom, preferably in "button" form, is a better candidate
than an aged specimen. Young mushrooms are
in a state of frenzied cell division. The clones
from young mushrooms tend to be more vigorous. Older mushrooms can be cloned but have
a higher contamination risk, and are slower to
recover from the shock of transfer. Two locations resulting in a high number of successful
clones are: the area directly above the gills, and

the interior tissue located at the base of the
stem. The stem base, being in direct contact
with the ground, is often the entry point
through which larvae tunnel, carrying with them
other microorganisms. For this reason, I prefer
the genetically rich area giving rise to the gills
and their associated spore-producing cells, the
basidia.

The procedure for cloning a mushroom is
quite simple. Choose the best specimen possible, and cut away any attached debris. Using
a damp paper towel, wipe the mushroom clean.
Lay the specimen on anew sheet of paper towel.
Flame-sterilize a sharp scalpel until it is red hot.

Cool the scalpel tip by touching the nutrient
agar medium in a petri dish.This petri dish will

The surest method of starting a mushroom

be the same dish into which you transfer the

strain is by cloning. Cloning means that a piece
of pure, living flesh is excised from the mush-

mushroom tissue. Carefully tear the mushroom
apart from the base, up the stem, and through

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