Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000


1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide


I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables






Malt Extract, Yeast Agar

Corn Meal, Yeast, Glucose Agar

1000 milliliters (1 liter) water
20 grams agar agar
20 grams barley malt sugar
2 gram yeast (nutritional)
1 gram peptone (optional, soybean derived)
(The above medium is abbreviated as MYA.
With the peptone, which is not critical for most
of the species described in this book, this medium is designated MYPA.)

(This medium is known as CMYA and is
widely used by mycological laboratories for
storing cultures and is not as nutritious as the
other above-described formulas.)

Potato, Dextrose, Yeast Agar
1000 milliliters (1 liter) water
300 grams of potatoes (i. e. the broth from boiling potatoes in 2-3 liters of water for 1 hour)
20 grams agar agar
10 grams dextrose
2 grams yeast
1 gram peptone (optional, soybean derived)

(This medium is designated PDYA, or
PDYPA if peptone is added. Note that only the
broth from boiling the potatoes is used-the potatoes are discarded. The total volume of the
media should equal 1 liter.)

Oatmeal, Malt, Yeast Enriched Agar
1000 milliliters water (1 liter)
80 grams instant oatmeal
20 grams agar agar
10 grams malt sugar
2 grams yeast

(This rich medium is called OMYA. The
oatmeal does not have to be filtered out although some prefer to do so.)

Dog Food Agar
1000 milliliters water (1 liter)
20 grams dry food*
20 grams agar agar

Dog food was first used as a component for agar medium by
the late Dr. Steven Pollock.

1000 milliliters water (1 liter)
20 grams agar agar
10 grams cornmeal
5 grams malt or glucose
1 gram yeast

The pH of the above media formulations, after sterilizing, generally falls between 5.5-6. 8.
This media can be further fortified with the addition of 3-5 grams of the end-substrate (in most
cases hardwood sawdust) upon which mushrooms
willbeproduced. If samples of soil ordung are desired, they first must be pre-boiled for 1-2 hours
before adding to any of the above formulas. One
potential advantage of the addition of these endsubstrate components is a significant reduction in
the "lag period. "The lag period is seen when
mushroommyceliumencountersunfarniliarcomponents. (See Leatham & Griffin, 1984; Raaska
1990). This simple step can greatly accelerate
the mushroom life cycle, decreasing the duration of colonization prior to fruiting.

The dry components are mixed together,
placed into a flask, to which 1 liter of water is
added. This cultivator finds that well-water,

spring water, or mineral water works well.
Chlorinated water is not recommended. Purchasing distilled water is unnecessary in my
opinion. Once the media has been thoroughly
mixed, the media flask is placed into a pressure

cooker. The top of the media flask is either
stopped with non-absorbent cotton, wrapped in
aluminum foil, or, if equipped with a screw cap,

the cap is loosely tightened. Sterilize for 45
minutes @ 15 psi or @ 2500 F
Pressure cookers or sterilizers that do not re-

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