Каталог нательных христианских крестов, подвесок и накладок с изображением креста периода Киевской Руси X-XIIIв

Кайль В. А., Нечитайло В. В. Каталог нательных христианских крестов, подвесок и накладок с изображением креста периода Киевской Руси X-XIIIв. — Луганск, 2006



Кресты золотые

Кресты серебрянные

Кресты каменные

Кресты с эмалью

Кресты изготовленные из бронзы, оловянистой бронзы и свинцово-оловянистого сплава

Накладные, нашивные кресты и украшения с крестами



The Structure of the Catalogue
This catalogues describes only body crosses, onlays and pedants depicting
crosses and doesn't mention encolpyon crosses relics crosses). The least group of
crosses will become the theme of the separate publication.
The items of the catalogue are divided into the following subcategories:
-Golden Crosses
-Silver Crosses
- Stone Crosses
- Crosses with Enamel
-Crosses made of Bronze, Tin Bronze, Lead and Leaden Tin
-Laid On and Sewed On Crosses and Decorations with Crosses.
Inside the unites the division is made based on the distinguishing characteristics,
which usually possess symbolic and sacred meaning:*
-Crosses with Spheroid Ends of Branches
-Crosses with Round Ends of Branches
-Crosses with Square Ends of Branches
- Crosses with Rectangular Branches
-Crosses with Wide Branches
-Crosses with Three Leaves
-Crosses with Cross-Like Branches
-Crosses with Lily-Formed Branches
- Crosses with Sharp Ends of Branches
- Crosses with Decoration.
Crosses with spheroid ends of branches, crosses with round ends of branches,
crosses with square ends of branches and crosses with sharp ends of branches have
figures on the ends of the branches, which repeat and enforces the symbol of the
center, emphasizing quarterness of the world and Christ.
Crosses with wide branches and crosses with extended branches symbolize four
rays of Life Lights, which come from Christ as its source.
Lily-Formed Crosses are the crosses with the branches in the form of the lily ancient
symbol of life. In Christianity it symbolizes life-starting Trinity.
Crosses with iconographic depictions of the Savior and Saints serve for
the religious education and attracting to the church of the baptized person.
There are crosses, which depict the flourishing in the basement of the cross.
Flourishing crosses look like early Christian depictions of an anchor or a ship and are
interpreted like a figure of spiritually bearer of Christian Church.
Sometimes drop-like pieces are found on the ends of the branches,
which symbolize the drops of Christ's blood, shed on the cross (in Rus they were
called tears). It could be also interpreted like vegetable elements flowers or ready to
blossom buds.
Cross with three leaves of clover is called "bottoni cross" in heraldic. Cloverleaves
symbolize Holy Trinity and are also used to show the resurrection of Christ.
Crosses with Rectangular Branches are the most popular ones in Rus. They
incarnate the idea of the center and four main directions which spread from it.
The upper branch of the cross is a way to God, the unity of the Earthy and Divine
Churches, the lower branch symbolizes a defeat of diabolic forces and future division
of good and bad.
The square with the cross in the middle can be interpreted like a symbol of four
earthy elements (water, fire, air and earth), Christ obtained during incarnation. The
square depicting crucified Christ can be found in the middle of some pectoral
crosses. It symbolizes the throne raising high above altar.