The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
78/The Mushroom Cultivator
he purpose of composting is to prepare a nutritious medium of such characteristics that the
growth of mushroom mycelium is promoted to the practical exclusion of competitor organisms. Specifically this means:
1. To create a physically and chemically homogeneous substrate.
2. To create a selective substrate, one in which the mushroom mycelium thrives better than
competitor microorganisms.
3. To concentrate nutrients for use by the mushroom plant and to exhaust nutrients favored by

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competitors.

4. To remove the heat generating capabilities of the substrate.
Mushroom mycelium grows on a wide variety of plant matter and animal manures. These
materials occur naturally in various combinations and in varying stages of decomposition. Physically
and chemically they are a heterogeneous mixture containing a wide variety of insects, microorganisms and nematodes. Many of these organisms directly compete with the mushroom mycelium for
the available nutrients and inhibit its growth. By composting, nutrients favored by competitors gradually diminish while nutrients available to the mushroom mycelium are accumulated. With time, the
substrate becomes specific for the growth of mushrooms.
The composting process is divided into two stages, commonly called Phase I and Phase II.
Each stage is designed to accomplish specific ends, these being:
Phase I: Termed outdoor composting, this stage involves the mixing and primary decomposition of the raw materials.
Phase II: Carried out indoors in specially designed rooms, the compost is pasteurized and
conditioned within strict temperature zones.

PHASE I COMPOSTING
Basic Raw Materials

The basic raw material used for composting is cereal straw from wheat, rye, oat, barley and rye

grass. Of these, wheat straw is preferred due to its more resilient nature. This characteristic helps
provide structure to the compost. Other straw types, oat and barley in particular, tend to flatten out
and waterlog, leading to anaerobic conditions within a compost pile. Rye grass straw is more resistant to decomposition, taking longer to compost. Given these factors and with proper management,
all straw types can be used successfully.
Straw provides a compost with carbohydrates, the basic food stuffs of mushroom nutrition.
Wheat straw is 36% cellulose, 25% pentosan and 1 6% lignin. Cellulose and pentosan are carbohydrates which upon break down yield simple sugars. These sugars supply the energy for microbial
growth. Lignin, a highly resistant material also found in the heartwood of trees, is changed during
composting to a "Nitrogen-rich-lignin-humus-complex", a source of protein. In essence, straw is a
material with the structural and chemical properties ideal for making a mushroom compost.

When cereal straw is gathered from horse stables, it is called "horse manure". Although cultivators call it by this name, the material is actually 90% straw and 1 0% manure. This "horse manure" includes the droppings, urine and straw that has been bedding material. The quality of this

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