The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

: [url=http://txt.drevle.com/text/stamets-mushroom_cultivator-a_practical_guide-1983/56]Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983[/url]
 

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
42/The Mushroom Cultivator

THE DEVELOPMENT OF GRAIN SPAWN
ushroom spawn is used to inoculate prepared substrates. This inoculum consists of a carrier
material fully colonized by mushroom mycelium. The type of carrier varies according to the
mushroom species cultivated, although rye grain is the choice of most spawn makers. The history
of the development of mushroom spawn for Agaricus brunnescens culture illustrates how spawn
production has progressed in the last hundred years.

M

During the 1 800's Agaricus growers obtained spawn by gathering concentrations of mycelium

from its natural habitat. To further encourage mycelial growth this "virgin spawn" was supplemented with materials similar to those occurring naturally, in this case horse manure. Spent compost from prior crops was also used as spawn. This kind of spawn, however, contained many contaminants and pests, and yielded few mushrooms. Before serious commercal cultivation could
begin, methods guaranteeing the quality and mass production of the mushroom mycelium had to
be developed.

With the advent of pure culture techniques, propagation of mushroom mycelium by spore
germination or by living tissue completely superseded virgin spawn. Now the grower was assured of
not only a clean inoculum but also a degree of certainty as to the strain itself. Strain selection and development was possible for the first time in the history of mushroom culture because high yielding
strains could be preserved on a medium of precise composition. Sterilized, chopped, washed compost became the preferred medium for original pure culture spawn and was for years the standard of
the Agaricus industry.
In 1 932, Dr. James Sinden patented a new spawn making process using cereal grain as the
mycelial carrier. Since then rye has been the most common grain employed although millet, milo
and wheat have also been used. Sinden's novel approach set a new standard for spawn making and
forms the basis for most modern spawn production. The distinct advantage of grain spawn is the increased number of inoculation sites. Each individual kernel becomes one such point from which
mycelium can spread. Thus, a liter of rye grain spawn that contains approximately 25,000 kernels
represents a vast improvement over inocula transmitted by coarser materials.
Listed below are cereal grains that can be used to produce spawn. Immediately following this
list is a chart illustrating some of the physical properties important to the spawn maker.

RICE: Utilized by few cultivators. Even when it is balanced to recommended moisture levels,
the kernels tend to clump together owing to the sticky nature of the outer coat.
MILLET: Although having a higher number of inoculation points than rye, it is more difficult to
formulate as spawn. Amycel, a commercial spawn-making company, has successfully developed a formula and process utilizing millet as their primary spawn medium.
SORGHUM: Has spherical kernels and works relatively well as a spawn medium but it can be
difficult to obtain. Milo, a type of sorghum, has been used for years by the Stoller Spawn
Company.

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