The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Appendix IV: Extracts to Induce Primordia Formation/357

APPENDIX IV
THE USE OF MUSHROOM
EXTRACTS TO INDUCE
PRIMORDIA FORMATION

T

he search for the biochemical means by which mushrooms fruit has been ongoing for years.
Several researchers have demonstrated the influence of hormones in regulating mushroom formation and development. From this work, it is clear that no one mechanism, but many, cause the
phenomenon of fruiting.

Urayama (1972) found that live extracts from young buttons of Agaricus brunnescens and
from other species would induce pinhead initiation in a Marasmius species that otherwise failed to
fruit on a specified agar medium. He determined that this particular Marasmius failed to form fruitbodies on agar media that had a carbon:nitrogen ratio of 1:10 with sucrose levels maintained at
1 %. Given the inability of pinheads to form at this Sucrose/Peptone ratio, he could introduce standardized cell free extracts of other mushroom species to gauge their effects. Species from which
crude extracts were taken were: Agaricus brunnescens, Len fin us edodes, Flamm ui/na velufipes
and P/euro fus ostreatus. The extracts were performed by washing 200 grams of homogenized live
mushroom tissue (primordia less than 1 cm. tall) with four successive baths of 80% methanol. The
residue was discarded each time and the methanol solution allowed to evaporate, under a slight vacuum, until a dried filtrate remained. One gram of this crude extract was then immersed into 10 milliliters of water and applied in 1/10th milliliter increments to each culture tube, except for the controls.
The results of Urayama's work showed that each of the four fractionations induced primordia
formation provided aqueous methanol (80%) and only young mushrooms were used. Extracts from
older fruitbodies, especially that of Agaricus brunnescens and Len tinus edodes, had no effect whatsoever. Urayama tried other solvents to isolate the mysterious "fruiting hormone" and discovered
that it was soluble in water and not soluble in absolute methanol, chloroform or petroleum benzine.

He worked on his "Substance X", as he liked to call it, for many years until his death in 1 980.
Shiio et alia (1 974) realized that young mushroom buttons contained high concentrations of
the fruiting hormones and applied this knowledge to the commercial cultivation of Fiammulina
velutipes. Pieces of Flammu/ina velut/pes primordia were immersed into sterile water and sprayed
over sawdust/bran beds. Not only were yields substantially increased by this crude procedure, but
initiation occurred much earlier, and the overall fruiting cycle was narrowed considerably. Clearly
these mycologists were on the road to discovering an important link in the biochemistry of fruiting.
Around the same time as the work of Shiio et alia, two other Japanese mycologists published
related studies (Uno & Ishikawa, 1 971, 1 973) whereby pinheads of Coprinus formed if a "cell free
extract" from young mushrooms was added to the culture. They and others isolated the causal

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