The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

: [url=http://txt.drevle.com/text/stamets-mushroom_cultivator-a_practical_guide-1983/369]Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983[/url]
 

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Appendix II: Laminar Flow Systems/347

APPENDIX II
LAMINAR FLOW SYSTEMS

S

uspended in the air is an invisible cloud of contaminants. These airborne spores are the primary
source of contamination during agar and grain culture, and they are the major force defeating
beginning cultivators. To control contamination, the cultivator must start with a sterile laboratory.

Without pure culture spawn, the prospect for a good crop is slight, no matter how refined one's
other techniques.
Creating an absolutely sterile environment, free of all airborne particulates, is extremely difficult,
if not impossible. "Nearly sterile" environments are more easily constructed and are quite suitable
for the purposes of the mushroom cultivator.
Chemical cleaners like detergents and disinfectants have traditionally been used for this purpose. Unfortunately, the frequent use of these cleaners to maintain hygiene in the laboratory pose
some risk to the handler. Ultraviolet lights are likewise dangerous and are difficult to position in a
room so that no shadows are cast. By far the least harmful and most effective method is the use of
high efficiency filters that screen out airborne particulates when air is pushed through them. These
filters are the basis of laminar flow systems. An understanding of the composition of unfiltered air
helps put into perspective the problem for which laminar flow systems are designed. The air, the filter, the fan and the laminar flow system will be discussed in that order.

The Air
Air is composed of many suspended and falling particles. A sample of air holds soot or smoke,
silica, clay, decayed animal and vegetable matter, and many, many spores. Some are only a fraction
of a micron in diameter while other are hundreds of times larger. These particles continously rain
down on the earth's surface. In light impact zones isolated from industrial centers, twenty tons per
square mile per month fall from the sky (ASHRAE, 1 978). Industrial areas have a fall-out that is ten
times greater. So-called "clean country air" contains, on the average, one million particles (greater
than .3 microns) per cubic foot. But in a room where a cigarette is being smoked, more than one

hundred million particles are suspended in the same air space. A sterile laboratory, on the other
hand, has less than one hundred particles per cubic foot of air!
Most of the spores contaminating mushroom cultures are between .5 and 20 microns in diameter. Generally, particles greater than 10 microns fall out of the air because of their weight. The
smallest particles in this group are the airborne spore-forming bacteria which originate from soils.
The smallest endospore forming bacteria are around .4 microns in diameter. Viruses which measure even smaller, sometimes a mere .05 of a micron in size, are usually attached to larger particles
such as fungal spores. This broad assortment of airborne debris poses the greatest danger to mushroom culture.

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