The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
334/Mushroom Genetics

INTRODUCTION
his chapter discusses what genes are and what they do. It addresses the relationship between an
individual's set of genes and the characteristics of that individual. The implications of genetics
for the grower or breeder of mushroom strains are examined and an improved, easy technique for
generating cultures from spore prints will be presented.

T

What Are Genes?
Genes contain specific sequences of nucleotides, the nitrogen-based building blocks of the
DNA molecule. These sequences specify the order of nucleotides in messenger RNA molecules,
which in turn determine the sequence of the amino acids in a protein chain. For the purposes of this
discussion, genes may be regarded as indivisible units, although in fact, they can on rare occasions
be split or altered. A mutation is the permanent alteration of a gene caused by some outside force
(chemicals, radiation, mistakes by the DNA copying mechanism of the cell, etc.). In discussions of
genetics, a gene is often referred to as a genetic locus, emphasizing the fact that genes are regions
copies of each gene.
of a DNA molecule. Within a population of a species, there are many
Each copy is referred to as an allele of that gene.

What Do Genes Do?
Genes are the blueprints of life. They specify the structure of RNA and protein molecules; these
molecules create all the other compounds and structures which make up a living organism. An individual organism is an emergent property of its genes in that not only is it the result of gene products,
but also the interactions of gene products. The expression and interaction of genes, that is the characteristics of an individual, are known collectively as the phenotype of that individual, whereas the

sets of genes which produce the phenotype is known as the genotype.

The Advantage of Multiple Copies of Genes
Many genes are present in the genotype in several copies, and these copies are often different
from one another. This is because the protein specified by any one gene copy has unique physical
and chemical properties of its own. It functions most efficiently at a certain temperature, pH and salt
concentration. If an important protein is represented in several different gene versions, a broad band
rather than a narrow range of temperatures and chemical conditions will be optimal.

Chromosomes
Chromosomes are collections of genes. They are long DNA molecules, each of which contain
several thousand genes. For this discussion, the genes are best visualized as beads on a string, so
that the string can be cut at any point between the beads, and can be rejoined at the place of the cut

or to any cut "string portion" or the chromosome.
Chromosomes are very small. With special stains and high powered microscopes, the larger
ones can be seen. Unfortunately, the chromosomes of fungi are extremely small, and the number of
chromosomes, something characteristic of each species, has never been determined for most fungi.

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