The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
322/Pests of Mushroom Culture
strate as the wandering larvae pupate. Once the cocoon is finished, the larva contracts into a pupal
stage, thus begining the transition to the adult stage. Pupae are 2-4 mm. long and change from
white to almost black.

Life Cycle: Developmental period in days
Temperature

Egg

Larva

Pupa

Adult

At75°F.

2
7

16

3

5-7

23

8

(no data)

At 61

F.

Sciarids thrive in the summer and fall with populations building to a peak in September and
October. Sciarids then die with the onset of cold outside temperatures.
Comments: The sciarid fly is responsible for considerable damage to commercial Agaricus crops.
Attracted by the smell of newly pasteurized compost, sciarids home in from miles away. A female
can lay between 1 50-170 eggs at a time. Eggs laid in the compost just after Phase II composting
hatch quickly info larvae during the spawn running period. These larvae then feed on the running
mycelium as well as compost, which is broken down into a foul smelling, soggy mass, totally unsuitable for spawn growth. Massive infestations can cause total crop failure.
At lower infestation levels, larvae migrate into the casing layer and then emerge just as the first
mushroom pins appear or as late as the first flush. These adults lay more eggs in the casing, and the
newly hatched larvae attack both mycelia and mushrooms. Symptoms of this attack include:
1.

Dead pinheads.

2. Pins or mushrooms that are loosely connected to the casing due to severed mycelial connections.

3. Brown or black spots on pinheads or on the stems of mushrooms.
4. "Salt shaker pins" perforated by larval tunnels.

5. Browning of the stem where cut.
Secondary damage to mushroom crops by sciarid flies comes from their role as carriers of
mites and diseases, including the pathogens Verticillium and Trichoderma. A single sciarid fly can
carry up to 20 mites!

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