The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

: [url=http://txt.drevle.com/text/stamets-mushroom_cultivator-a_practical_guide-1983/342]Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983[/url]
 

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
320/Pests of Mushroom Culture

MUSHROOM FLIES
ushroom flies and midges are present in nature wherever fungi are found. Attracted by the

M odor of decomposing manure and vegetable matter, as well as the smell of growing

mycelium, these insect pests zero in and lay their eggs on or near the mycelium and fruitbodies.
Under proper conditions these eggs hatch. But it is the larvae that do the extensive damage to the
mushroom plant, either by directly feeding on the mycelial cells or tunneling through the mushroom fruitbody. Because of the concentration of attractive odors, a commercial mushroom farm is
always under siege by these pests. To insure insect free crops, certain measures are necessary. Unfortunately the bulk of these control measures involve insecticides, an approach not recommended
by the authors. The use of insecticides is not only costly and hazardous to human health, but also

represents a short term solution of a symptom rather than the solution of the problem itself. The
answer to disease and pest control in mushroom growing is strict hygiene for which there can be no
substitute.

Fly

Control Measures
1.

Pasteurization periods and temperatures must be sufficient to kill all stages of insect
growth—140°F. for 2 hours in composts or other bulk substrates.

2. All Phase II, spawning, spawn running and cropping rooms must be airtight. Physically excluding insects from these areas is the most positive control one can exercize. Even the

smallest crack can serve as an entrance to the growing room. The spawn running rooms
should be the most secure with access to these areas restricted. All doors should be
weather-stripped and tight fitting. Positive pressure and air locks also help.
3. All tools and implements should be cleaned and disinfected before use on a new crop. A
commonly used disinfectant is a 2% chlorine solution.

4. Breeding areas must be prevented by removing from the premises all excess or spent substrates, used grains, mushroom trimmings and other related by-products.
5. The growing room and all containers should be washed and disinfected between crops.
Wood in particular harbors contaminants, including virus infected mushroom mycelium.
Treatment of wood with cuprinol or copper sulfate is common. Petroleum based products
should be avoided.
6. Fresh air intakes and exhaust vents must be screened with fine mosquito netting. Be sure
there are no cracks around the filters and fan housing.

7. The room should be equipped with an insect monitor. The use of a monitor alerts the grower to fly emergence from within the growing room or to fly entry from the outside. The
monitor can be as simple as a 12" x 12" plywood board to which a small black light (long
wave UV) is centrally mounted. On either side of the light sticky paper is attached. There
are also small pest lights commercially available. (See Resource section in the Appendix).

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