The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
308/The Mushroom Cultivator

TORULA
Class: Fungi Imperlecti
Order: Mon//ia/es
Family: Dematiaceae

Common Name: Black

Yeast

(Toru/a

nigra).

Latin root: From the same root as the adjectival "torulosus", meaning cylindrical shaped
with bulges and constrictions at regular intervals, chain-like.

Habitat and Frequency of Occurrence:

Drawing of the sporulating
structure of Torula, the Black Yeast.

Figure 224

Saprophytic, common. Many thermophilic
species participate in the decomposition of
straw and manure in the making of mushroom composts. Although Toru/a is rarely
seen in agar culture, its cousin Rhodotorula,
a red yeast, is frequently seen.

Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Primarily an airborne contaminant; secondarily transmitted through compost.

Methods of Control: None generally needed or desired. Torula is a beneficial, thermophilic
microorganism thriving in the 115-125° F. range.
Macroscopic Appearance: Whitish at first, then grayish, soon dark brown or jet black with spore
production. As Toru/a matures, the mycelium becomes covered with a mass of spores that give it a
soot-like appearance. On compost, this fungus appears similar to Humico/a.

Microscopic Characteristics: Mycelium colorless or slightly pigmented. True conidiophores are
lacking. Hyphae abruptly terminate into conidia which are ovoid, translucent, dark brown, smooth
and produced in branched or unbranched chains by either of two methods. In one form, the more
mature spores of a conidial chain develop apically, with the younger spores arising from the spore
closest to the hyphal branch. (This is called basipetal development). In a second form, conidia can
develop by simple budding from the tips of a hypha, in a yeast-like fashion. The budding hypha narrows towards the apex into immature spores and finally terminates with an attenuating tail. Freed are
conidia found singly or attached several at a time.

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