The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Contaminants of Mushroom Culture/257

ALTERNARIA
Class: Fungi Imperfecti
Order: Moniliales
Family: Dematiaceae
Common Name: Black Mold; Gray Black
Mold; Black Point.
Latin Root: From "alternus" which means
alternating, in reference fo the chains of alter-

nating spores, which so characterize this
genus.

Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence:
Very common in nature, occasionally to frequently encountered in spawn production,
and present in large numbers in household
dust. Alternaria is infrequently seen on rye
grain, and according to Bitner (1 972), this
contaminant is more prevalent on sorghum
Figure 187 Drawing of conidia typical of
than on other grains. Alt ernaria is one of the
the genus Alternaria.
major fungal saprophytes on grain, seeds,
straw, leaves, rotting fruits and unsalted butter. In temperate climatic zones, it is more prevalent in
the late summer and fall than at any other time.

Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Air.
Measures of Control: Good hygienic habits; maintenance of a low dust level; and filtration of air
through micron filters.
Macroscopic Appearance: A rapidly growing rich gray black to blackish mycelium. Alternaria
first appears as scattered blackish spots in the spawn jars, soon spreading and overwhelming the
mushroom mycelium. On agar, it resembles a black Penicillium-like mold.
Microscopic Characteristics: Vertically oriented lengths of cells (hyphae) emerging from a mat of
mycelium that segregates into conidia, and which originated through pores at the apices of vertically
oriented hyphae. Conidia (spores) are usually multicelled, sometimes two celled and large, measur-

ing 20-100 x 6-30 microns.
History, Use and/or Medical Implications: Species in this genus causing allergies and other
respiratory ailments in humans, particularly hay-fever. Because of their large size, Alternaria spores

soon settle, falling at a rate of 3 millimeters/second in still air.

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