The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Growing Parameters for Various Mushroom Species/21 3

Air Temperature: 55-62 °F.
C02: less than 1 000 ppm.
Fresh Air Exchanges: 2-4 per hour.
Flushing lnteival: Every 1 0-15 days.
Haivest Stage: Directly before or as the partial veil tears. (Note that young mushrooms have a
much better flavor than mature ones).
Light: Indirect natural or exposure to grow-lux type fluorescent for 1 2 hours/day.

Yield Potential: Average commercial yields are 2-3 lbs./sq.ft. over a 8 week cropping period.
Maximum yields are nearly 6 lbs per square foot.

Moisture Content of Mushrooms: 92% water; 8% dry matter.

Nutritional Content: 22% protein (dry weight); 34 milligrams of niacin per 100 grams dry
weight.

Comments: A mushroom recently cultivated in Europe (Germany, Czechoslovakia and Poland)
by home growers in outdoor cold frames, the status of knowledge regarding the optimum growing
parameters for this species remains in its infancy. For instance, Szudyga (1 978) noted that fruitbodies form just as well at 50°F. and 68°F., a considerable fruiting range for any species.
After the cropping period ends, the spent straw is used as fodder for farm animals or is saved for

future inoculations. The strain is kept kept alive by continous transfer onto fresh substrates. (See
Chapter VI on natural culture). Propagating spawn in this way, however, is less assured than sterile
methods.
Stanek (1974) reported that the introduction of several thermotolerant endospore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus (B. subtilus, B. meseatericus and B. macerans) to the casing not only in-

hibited attacks by competitors but also stimulated mycelial growth which presumably would enhance yields. Endospores of these bacteria survive pasteurization but not sterilization, and are abun-

dant in soils. This discovery may explain why sterilized casings do not produce fruitbodies.

Genetic Characteristics: Basidia tetrapolar (4-spored), forming haploid spores; heterothallic.
Clamp connections are present. See Chapter XV.

For further information consult:
K. Szudyga, 1978. "Stropharia rugoso-annu/ata" in The Biology and Cultivation of Edible
Mushrooms ed. by S.T. Chang and W.A. Hayes. Academic Press, New York.

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