The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

: [url=http://txt.drevle.com/text/stamets-mushroom_cultivator-a_practical_guide-1983/154]Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983[/url]
 

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
140/The Mushroom Cultivator
he change from the vegetative state of mycelial growth to the generative one of primordia formation is caUed pinning, pin setting, pinhead initiation or fructification. Primordia or pinheads
are knots of mycelium that precede development into small mushrooms. All species require a set of
environmental conditions for pinning that are quite different from the conditions for mycelial growth.
By understanding the factors that regulate this change in the mushroom life cycle, the cultivator can

T

control the pinning process.

In nature primordia formation is primarily influenced by seasonal changes in environmental
conditions. In temperate climates most mushrooms fruit during the cool, wet fall whereas in tropical
and subtropical climates mushrooms fruit during the rainy season. The fruiting period ends when
the season changes and environmental conditions become too hot, too cold or too dry. The mycehum then lies dormant or grows slowly, reactivated only by the warming of spring and summer.
These seasons are times for the mycehium to expand its network, absorb nutrients and rebuild its
energy reserves. Once the cool wet conditions of fall return, these reserves are used to support another crop of mushrooms.

Basic Pinning Strategy
Mushrooms fruit indoors in response to much the same conditions that trigger fruiting in the
wild. Several environmental factors, working in combination, provide an ideal environment in which
mushrooms flourish. Most, if not all cultivated mushrooms fruit at lower temperatures than the optimum for the growth of mycehium. Usually, a drop in temperature is accompanied by rain or an increase in humidity. Water is essential for the absorption of nutrients by the mycehium. And vaporous
water creates the humid microclimate that is so critical for the developing primordia. Primordia have
a low tolerance to CO2 and need ample fresh air. And while the mycelium has no requirement for
light, many species need light to initiate pinheads and to mature into healthy mushrooms. Mushrooms form only when there is a coincidence of all these factors. Cultivators create an artificial environment that prolongs these optimum conditions so that mushrooms are given the best possible environment in which to grow.
Primordia formation strategies are well defined for species now under cultivation. These procedures are similar in their approach and differ only in certain environmental requirements. Given that
the substrate has sufficient nutrients, the interaction of water, humidity, temperature, fresh air, CO2
and light all play determining roles in the fructification process. (In some cases, specific microorganisms must be present before fruiting can occur). The modification of any one of these factors be-

yond the fruiting requirements can inhibit or stop the process. Hence, the cultivator must have precise control over conditions within the growing room if this critical phase is to be carried out successfully.

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