The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

: [url=http://txt.drevle.com/text/stamets-mushroom_cultivator-a_practical_guide-1983/147]Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983[/url]
 

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Casing Layer/133
be presoaked to saturation before being mixed with the other listed ingredients.
An important reference point for cultivators is the moisture saturation level of the casing. To
determine this level, completely saturate a sample of the casing and allow it to drain. Cover and
wait for one half hour. Now weigh out 1 00 grams of it and dry in an oven at 200 °F. for two to
three hours or until dry. Reweigh the sample and the difference in weight is the percent moisture
at saturation. This percentage can be used to compare moisture levels at any point in the cropping cycle. Optimum moisture content is normally 2-4% below saturation. Typically, peat based
casings are balanced to a 70-75% moisture content.

Application
To prepare a casing, assemble and mix the components while in a dry or semi-dry state.
Even distribution of the limestone buffer is important with a thoroughly homogeneous mixture being the goal. When these materials have been sufficiently mixed, add wafer slowly and evenly,
bringing the moisture content up to 90% of ifs saturation level. There is an easy method for preparing a casing of proper moisture content. Remove 1 0-20% of the volume of the dry mix and
then saturate the remaining 80-90%. Then add the remaining dry material. This method brings
the moisture content to the near optimum. (Some growers prefer to let the casing sit for 24 hours
and fully absorb water. Prior to its application, the casing is then thoroughly mixed again for even
moisture distribution).
At this point apply the casing to the fully run substrate. Use a pre-measured container to consistently add the same volume to each cropping unit.
1. Depth: The correct depth to apply the casing layer is directly related to the depth of the
substrate. Greater amounts of substrate increase yield potential which in turn puts more
stress on the casing layer. Prolific first and second flushes can remove a thin casing or
damage its surface structure, thereby limiting future mushroom production. A thin casing
layer also lacks the body and moisture holding capacity to support large flushes. AS A
GENERAL RULE, THE MORE MUSHROOMS EXPECTED PER SQUARE FOOT OF
SURFACE AREA, THE DEEPER THE CASING LAYER.

Agaricus growers use a minimum of one inch and a maximum of two inches of casing on their beds. Substrate depths of six to eight inches are cased 1 ¼ to 1 ½ inches
deep. Substrates deeper than 8 inches are cased 1 ½ to 2 inches deep. Nevertheless, experiments in Holland using casing depths of 1 inch and 2 inches demonstrated that the
deep casing layer supported higher levels of microorganisms and produced more mushrooms. (See Visscher, 1 975). To gain the full benefits of a casing layer, an absolute minimum depth on bulk substrates is 1 inch. For fruiting on sterilized grain, the casing need
not be as deep as for fruitings on bulk substrates. Shallow layers of grain are commonly
cased 3/4 to 1 inch deep.
2. Evenness: The casing layer should be applied as evenly as possible on a level substrate
surface. An uneven casing depth is undesirable for two reasons: shallower regions can

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