The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

: [url=http://txt.drevle.com/text/stamets-mushroom_cultivator-a_practical_guide-1983/143]Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983[/url]
 

Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
The Casing Layer/129
2.

To provide a humid microclimate for primordia formation and development.
The casing is a layer of material in which the mushroom mycelium can develop an extensive, healthy network. The mycelium within the casing zone becomes a platform that
supports formation of primordia and their consequent growth into mushrooms. It is the
moist humid microclimate in the casing that sustains and nurtures mycelial growth and
primordia formation.

3.

To provide a water reservoir for the maturing mushrooms.
The enlargement of a pinhead into a fully mature mushroom is sfrongly influenced by
available wafer, without which a mushroom remains small and stunted. With the casing
layer functioning as a water reservoir, mushrooms can reach full size. This is particularly
important for heavy flushes when mushrooms are competing for water reserves.

4.

To support the growth of fructification enhancing microorganisms.
Many ecological factors influence the formation of mushroom primordia. One of these
factors is the action of select groups of microorganisms present in the casing. A casing
prepared with the correct materials and managed according to the guidelines outlined in
this chapter supports the growth of beneficial microflora.

Properties
The casing layer must maintain mycelial growth, stimulate fruiting and support continual
flushes of mushrooms. In preparing the casing, the materials must be carefully chosen according
to their chemical and physical properties. These properties are:
1. Water Retention: The casing must have the capacity to both absorb and release substantial quantities of water. Not only does the casing sustain vegetative growth, but it also
must supply sufficient moisture for successive generations of fruitbodies.

2. Structure: The structure of the casing surface must be porous and open, and remain so
despite repeated waterings. Within this porous surface are small moist cavities that protect
developing primordia and allow metabolic gases to diffuse from the substrate into the air.
If this surface microclimate becomes closed, gases build up and inhibit primordia forma-

tion. A closed surface also reduces the structural cavities in which primordia form. For
these reasons, the retention of surface structure directly affects a casing's capability to
form primordia and sustain fruitbody production.

3. Microflora: Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of beneficial bacteria in
the casing layer. High levels of bacteria such as Pseuclomonas putida result in increased
primordia formation, earlier cropping and higher yields. During the casing colonization
period these beneficial bacteria are stimulated by metabolic gases that build up in the substrate and diffuse through the casing. In fact, dense casing layers and deep casing layers
generally yield more mushrooms because they slow diffusion. It is desirable therefore to
build-up CO2 and other gases prior to primordia formation. (For a further discussion on
the influence of bacteria on primordia formation, see Appendix I!.)
The selection of specific microbial groups by mycelial metabolites is an excellent ex-

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