The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home

Paul Stamets. The mushroom cultivator. A practical guide to growing mushrooms at home. - Agarikon press, 1983

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Содержание

FOREWORD by Dr. Andrew Weil

PREFACE

I. INTRODUCTION TO MUSHROOM CULTURE

II. STERILE TECHNIQUE AND AGAR CULTURE

III. GRAIN CULTURE

IV. THE MUSHROOM GROWING ROOM

V. COMPOST PREPARATION

VI. NON-COMPOSTED SUBSTRATES

VII. SPAWNING AND SPAWN RUNNING IN BULK SUBSTRATES

VIII. THE CASING LAYER

IX. STRATEGIES FOR MUSHROOM FORMATION (PINHEAD INITIATION)

X. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: SUSTAINING THE MUSHROOM CROP

XL GROWING PARAMETERS FOR VARIOUS MUSHROOM SPECIES

XII. CULTIVATION PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS: A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

XIII. THE CONTAMINANTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE: IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL

XIV. THE PESTS OF MUSHROOM CULTURE

XV. MUSHROOM GENETICS

APPENDICES

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

OCR
Compost Preparation/95

4. Compost has a strong smell of ammonia, pH of 8.0-8.5.
5. Compost is lightly flecked with whitish colonies of actinomycetes.
6.

Kjeldahl nitrogen is 1 .5% for horse manure and 1 .7% for synthetic composts.

Supplementation at Filling
The key to a successful Phase II, whether in trays, shelves or a bulk room, lies in the heat generating capabilities of the completed Phase I compost. To this end the compost should be biologically "active," a term that describes a compost with sufficient food reserves to sustain a high level of
microbial activity. Whereas the Sinden Short Compost is a model of a vitally active compost, the
Rasmussen Long Compost is considered biologically "dead" because these food reserves have
been deliberately exhausted during Phase I. In this same sense, a compost having completed the
Phase II is also considered a dead compost.
A method that insures a high level of microbial activity during the Phase II is supplementation
with highly soluble carbohydrates during Phase I or with vegetable oils (fats) at filling. The purpose
of these supplements is to provide readily available nutrients which stimulate the growth of the microbial populations. The effect of carbohydrates or oil supplementation on the Phase II is:
1.

Accelerated thermogenesis—The nutrients provided by the supplements act as a "supercharger" for the microbial populations. Consequently their increased activity generates
more heat. Specifically, supplementation with vegetable oil (cottonseed oil) increased populations of actinomycetes and thermophilic fungi (Schisler and Patton, 1 970) while soluble
carbohydrates (molasses) enhanced bacterial populations (Hayes and Randle, 1968).

2. Better compost ventilation—Heightened thermogenesis within the compost requires lower

air temperatures within the Phase II room. The greater the compost to air temperature differential, the better the air movement through the compost. In this respect a dead compost
requires a high room temperature and is difficult to condition because of its low microbial
activity.
3.

Rapid reduction of free ammonia—The increased ventilation and microbial activity give rise
to a rapid fixation of ammonia. As a result, the Phase II period is reduced by as much as
three days. The advantage of this reduced time period is that dry matter and hence nutrients
for mushroom growth are conserved.

4. Reduced spawn running period—Oil supplemented composts show increased mycelial activity and therefore higher temperatures during the spawn running period. As a result the
colonization period is shortened by three to five days.
5. Increased yields—Yield increases of 0.4-0.5 lbs/ft2 are common for Agaricus growers us-

ing vegetable oil at filling. Similar increases are reported for molasses.
Compost supplementation with soluble carbohydrates is an effective way to prepare an active compost. These materials are listed earlier in the chapter as Group IV supplements. They are added to a

synthetic compost during pre-composting (50%) and at third turn (50%) and to a horse manure
compost at make-up and at third turn. Molasses is added at make-up at a rate of 1 0 ml per pound of

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