Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

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Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
50

MATERIALS FOR FORMULATING A FRUITING SUBSTRATE

the greatest aluminum, mercury & lead concentrations, with Californian mushrooms next, and

mushrooms grown in the less industrialized
Olympic Peninsula ofWashington had the least.
With the phasing out of lead-based gasoline and
the implementation of tougher environmental
restrictions, pollution of wood sources maybe
ameliorated. (For more information on the con-

centration of metals and toxins, and their

Mushroom News, Dec., 1992). Many environ-

mental service companies will analyze your
product for a nominal fee, usually between $
50-125 U. S. If an analysis shows unusually
high levels, the same specimens should be sent
to an unrelated laboratory for confirmation.
Please consult your Department ofAgriculture,
county extension agent or comparable agency
for any applicable threshold requirements.

potential significance, consult Stijve, 1992 &

List of Suitable Tree Species for the Culfivation of
Gourmet & Medicinal Mushrooms*
Scientific Name

Common Name

Scientific Name

Abies spp.
Abies alba**
Acer spp.
Acer negundo
Acer rubrum
Acer macrophyllum
Acer saccharum
Alniphyllum fortunei
Alnus spp.
Alnus alba
Alnus glutinosa
Alnus incana
Alnus japonica
Alnus rubra
Alnus serrulata

Red Fir

Alnus tinctoria
Altingia chinensis
Arbutus spp.
Arbutus menziesii
Betula spp.
Betula alleghaniensis
Betula dahurica
Betula lenta
Betula nigra
Betula papyrifera
Betula pendula
Betula pubescens
Carpinus
Carpinus betulis
Carpinus caroliniana

White Fir
Maples
Box Elder
Red Maple
Big Leaf Maple
Sugar Maple

Alders
White Alder
European Alder
Gray Alder
Japanese Alder
Red Alder
Hazel Alder

This list was compiled from trials and reports by the

author, Pagony (1973), San Antonio (1981), Farr

(l983),Gilbertson&Ryvardefl(1986),andChang
& Miles (1989), Przybylowicz & Donoghue
(1989), and Kniger (1992). Some of the listed tree
species are probable candidates due to their close
affinities to species proven to be suitable for cultivation. I do not encourage the cutting of trees solely
as a source of substrate for mushroom cultivation,
The acquisition of wood materials from the forest
should follow sustainable forest practices, and ide-

Common Name
Madrones
Pacific Madrone
Birches
Yellow Birch
Sweet Birch
River Birch
Paper Birch
European Birch
Hairy Birch

Hornbeans
European Hornbean
American Hornbean

ally be a "waste" product generated from other activities.
**Some races of Ganoderma (G. oregonense & G.

rsugae),Hypholoma(H. capnoides),P!eurotus(P
pulmonarius), Psilocvbe (P cvanescensand allies)
and Stropharia (S. ruguso-annulata) grow naturally
on firs (i.e.Abies species). In general. these coniferdegrading mushroom species can also be cultivated
on most hardwoods. However, few mushroom spe-

ciesnativetohardwoodswillfruitonmostconifers.

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