Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

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Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
414

GROWTH PARAMETERS

the site, provide shade and then institute
spawn throughout the depth of the substrate. Heavily water
the strategy of benign neglect—ignore it until early spring.
of October and December, the
When Morel spawn is planted late in the year, between the months
Morel spawn that is planted in
localized
to
the
inoculation
site.
In
contrast,
mushroom patch remains
site.
A professor from the Portland
the spring often gives rise to fruitings remote from the inoculation
she found a convoy of Morels
State University planted her spawn in the early summer. The next spring
walk-way. This also illusfruiting from the site of inoculation extending several hundred feet along a

conducive to Morel growth, a
trates that, by locating your Morel patch in an area generally
experience, the

substantially larger patch than one just lOft. x lOft. in size can be created. From my
oak, poplar, cottonwood andlor
best sites, always shaded, are: around freshly laid wood chips of elm,
overflowing streams, and of
Douglas fir, in apple orchards, along gravel driveways, in washes from
the access to these types of favorable habicourse in soils where a fire has swept through. The greater
Morel patch. The larger the mycelial
tats that you give the Morel mycelium, the larger your potential
formation. Once the spawn is in
mat, the more opportunities for widespread, underground scierotia
do what it does best.
place, you relinquish control over to natural forces. In effect, you allow Nature to
aerially
bombarding
prospective
I have always envisioned, being the mad scientist at heart, of
using
a
fire-retardent
to
habitats with Morel scierotia. Every time I see a television report of airplanes
the
same
sites
with
a
quench a forest fire, I imagine their returning a week or two later and bombing
bombardier!
scierotial slurry of Morel spawn. I happily volunteer to be the spawn maker and the
"indicator" species.
other
mushrooms,
some
of
which
I
view
as
Outdoor Morel beds often support
common and welcome
Their presence is a sure sign that the habitat is suitable for Morels. The most
Rhizina
(R. undulata),
indicator species are the brown cup fungi, species belonging to the Genus
Discina (D. perlata) & the Genus Peziza, P. phyllogena (= Peziza badio-confusa).
view them as true comSince I find Morels fruiting abundantly in amongst these cup fungi, I do not
Early
Morel,Verpa
bohemica,
petitors. Furthermore, the False Morel, Gyromitra esculenta and the
precede Morels by two or more weeks. (See Chart, Figure 369).
A new hybrid
In the Pacific Northwest, Morels are found directly at the base of cottonwood trees.
being
planted
en masse for
strain of cottonwoods, a cross between eastern and western varieties, is
strain"
of
cottonwoods,
pulp production. The mating of these two varieties has yielded a "super
accelerated life cycles, seem like
which grow up to an inch per day. These cottonwoods, with their
ideal candidates for the companion cultivation of Morels outdoors.
bed directly underneath
A similar approach might work with apple trees. By locating an morel
and large scale,
apple trees, the cultivator could create a perennial Morel patch. Orchards, both small

well known to frequent the
could provide a bumper crop each spring. Once established, the Black Morel is
home for Morels.
same apple orchard for decades. Most other habitats provide only a temporary
soils are charSince cottonwoods enjoy especially wet conditions, often unsuitable for pines, their

ideal for the natural
acterized as having a naturally higher moisture content. This environment is
outdoors,
including
those
on
logs
and on chip/sawdust
cultivation of a number of many mushrooms
of gourmet and
mounds. Mature cottonwoods can be harvested and inoculated with a wide variety
medicinal mushrooms. Logs can be impregnated with Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Maitake
(Grifolafrondosa), Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), or Lion's Mane (Hericiuin erinaceus) mycelium.

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