Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

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Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
GROWTH PARAMETERS

381

fuses amateur collectors. (Lincoff (1993)). G.
frondosa has smaller, non-cylindrical spores,
lacks the sclerotial stage in its life cycle, and

arises from a multiple forking base.
Description: The mushrooms arise from under-

ground sclerotia. The near black sclerotium,
resembling pig's dung in form, but woody in
texture, swells with water and generates a multi-

branched, circular shaped mushrooms with
umbellicate caps. These bouquets of mushrooms arise from a common stem base. The
fruitbodies are whitish at first, becoming
dingy brown with age, with an underside featuring circular to angular pores.
Distribution: Infrequently occurring throughout
the deciduous woodlands of north-central and
northeastern North America, in the temperate regions of China, and in Europe where it was first
Figure 341. Sclerotia of North American P
umbellatus.

described. Gilbertson & Ryvarden (1987) re-

ported this mushroom from the states of

Montana and Washington. If this mushroom indeed grows in the Pacific Northwest, it is exceedingly rare, as I have never found it, and know no one
who has.

Natural Habitat: Found on the ground, arising from dead roots or buried wood, on stumps, or in soils
rich in lignicolous matter, preferring birches, maples, willows, and beeches. Predominantly growing
in deciduous woodlands, this mushroom has been reported from coniferous forests, although rare.
Weir (1917) reported this mushroom from Montana growing on spruce (Picea sp.).

Microscopic Features: Spores 7-10 x 3-4 p, white in deposit, smooth, cylindrical. Hyphal system
dimitic, non-septate, clamp connections present on the generative hyphae.
Available Strains: Strains are available from most culture libraries. However, most of the strains that
I have tested are non-fruiting in culture. Hence, strains which can produce under indoor, controlled
conditions are needed.

Mycelial Characteristics: White, longitudinally linear, soon densely cottony, forming a thick, peelable mycelial mat on agar, grain, and in sawdust media. On sterilized sawdust, the mycelium, as it
ages, forms outer layers of yellowish, gelatinous exudate. This mushroom causes a white rot.

Fragrance Signature: Musty, sour, slightly bitter, not pleasant.
Natural Method of Cultivation: The roots of stumps are inoculated by digging trenches into the root
zones which have been already parasitized by, for instance, the Honey Mushroom, Armillaria mellea.

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