Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

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Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
322

GROWTH PARAMETERS

generally not longer than lOp long
pulmonariUS is usually more darkly pigmented and has spores
l5p in length.
compared to the paler P populinus whose spores often measure up to
sajor-caju".
have mistakenly called a variety of this mushroom "Pleurotus
to the Genus Lentinus by Pegler (1975),
The true Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer has been returnedsajor-caju
(Fr.) Sing. has a distinct veil, a
and is now called Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fries. Pleurotus
composing the flesh. (P pulmonarius is
persistent ring on the stem, and trirnitic or dimitic hyphae
inTheAgaricales in Modern Taxonomy
monomitic.)In light of this new information, Singer's remark
likelihood of its sharing synonymy
(1986, p. 178) concerning the similarity of P sajor-caju and theunderstandable. He was describing a
with Lentinus dactyliophorus and Lentinus ieucochrous is now
in United States and Europe and have
mushroom completely different than the one cultivators grow
been calling "P sajor-caju".
that confusion will likely reign for a
The name "P sajor-caju" has been mis-applied so frequently extraordinary yields of "P sajorconsiderable time. Many of the scientific papers published on the
undoubtedly referring to a strain of P
caju" on straw, cotton wastes, coffee residues (ad infinitum) are
entrenched by cultivators,
pulmonarius. (See Hilber (1989), p. 246). Since the name has become so
like a good compromise. Unnaming a new variety, i.e. Pleurotuspulmoflarius var. sajor-caju seems
commercially
cultivated
Oyster mushroom
refrain from calling this

til then, cultivators should

"Pleurotus sajor-cajU", as it is incorrect.
eventually flat or upturned and often
Description: Cap convex at first, expanding to broadly convex,
white to beige to lilac grey to grey-brown, sometimes
wavy in age. 5-20 cm (+) in diameter. Grayish
is lighter in color. Under the same light
with pinkish or orangish tones. (At high temperatures, the cap
grayish black.) Cap margin
conditions, under cold conditions, the cap becomes very dark gray to
the strain, lighting, and temperature
smooth to undulating like an Oyster. Color varies according to
eccentrically
attached
to
the
cap.
Veil absent. Flesh generally thin.
conditions. Stems are typically
6
mushrooms.
Strains of this mushroom rarely form clusters of more than 5 or
Distribution: Widely reported from North America and Europe.
primarily decomposes hardwoods
Natural Habitat: In the eastern United States, this mushroom
middle
elevations (1200-3000 meters) on
while in the western regions, the species can be found at
conifers (Abies and Picea). Common in the spring and summer.
less cylinMicroscopic Features: Spores white to yellowish to lavender grey when dense, more or
monomitic.
drical, 7.5-11 x 3-4 p. Clamp connections present. Hyphal system

libraries, and frequently mis-laAvailable Strains: Plentiful, available from most all culture
known as "3300 INRA-Somycel",
belled as "Pleurotus sajor-caju". A nearly sporeless strain,
strains,
but is less productive. (See
produces about 1/100th of the spore load of normal
yielding, low sporulating strains of
Imbernon & Houdeau, 1991). The development for high
health of workers.
Pleurotus is essential to limit the impact spores have on the
eventually forming a thick, peelMycelial Characteristics: White, linear, becoming cottony, and
transferred in a timely fashion (i.e.
able, mycelial mat. If cultures on agar media or on grain are not

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