Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

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Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
THE ROLE OF MUSHROOMS IN NATURE

11

Figure 12. The cultivation of the Button Mushroom, a secondary decomposer, in caves near Paris in July of
1868. Note candle used for illumination. (From Robinson's Mushroom Culture, 1885, David Mc Kay Publishers, Philadelphia).

fungi first to capture a twig, a blade of grass,
a chip of wood, a log or stump. Primary decomposers are typically fast-growing,
sending out ropey strands of mycelium that
quickly attach to and decompose plant tissue.

Secondary Decomposers: These mush-

Most of the decomposers degrade wood.

rooms rely on the previous activity of other
fungi to partially break down a substrate to a
state wherein they can thrive. Secondary decomposers typically grow from composted
material. The actions of other fungi, actino-

Hence, the majority of these saprophytes are

mycetes, bacteria and yeasts all operate

woodland species, such as Oyster mush-

within a compost. As plant residue is de-

rooms
(Pleurotus
species),
Shii take
(Lentinula edodes) and King Stropharia
(Stropharia rugoso-annulata). However,

graded by these microorganisms, the mass,
structure and composition of the compost is
reduced. Heat, carbon dioxide, ammonia and
other gases are emitted as by-products of the
composting process. Once these microorgan-

each species has developed specific sets of
enzymes to break down lignin-cellulose, the
structural components of most plant cells.
Once the enzymes of one mushroom species
have broken down the lignin-cellulose to its
fullest potential, other saprophytes utilizing
their own repertoire of enzymes can reduce
this material even further.

isms

(especially

actinomycetes)

have

completed their life cycles, the compost is
susceptible to invasion by a select secondary
decomposer. A classic example of a secondary decomposer is the
White Button
Mushroom, Agaricus brunnescens, the most

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