Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms

Paul Stamets. Growing gourmet and medical mushrooms. - Ten Speed Press, 2000

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Содержание

1. Mushrooms, Civilization and History

2. The Role of Mushrooms in Nature

3.Selecting a Candidate for Cultivation

4. Natural Culture: Creating Mycological Landscapes

5. The Stametsian Model: Permaculture with a Mycological Twist

6. Materials fo rFormulating a Fruiting Substrate

7. Biological Efficiency: An Expression of Yield

8. Home-made vs. Commercial Spawn

9. The Mushroom Life Cycle

10. The Six Vectors of Contamination

11. Mind and Methods for Mushroom Culture

12. Culturing Mushroom Mycelium on Agar Media

13. The Stock Culture Library: A Genetic Bank of Mushroom Strains

14. Evaluating a Mushroom Strain

15. Generating Grain Spawn

16. Creating Sawdust Spawn

17. Growing Gourmet Mushrooms on Enriched Sawdust

18. Cultivating Gourmet Mushrooms on Agricultural Waste Products

19. Cropping Containers

20. Casing: A Topsoil Promoting Mushroom Formation

21. Growth Parameters for Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom Species

Spawn Run: Colonizing the Substrate

Primordia Formation: The Initiation Strategy

Fruitbody (Mushroom) Development

The Gilled Mushrooms

The Polypore Mushrooms of the Genera Ganoderma, Grifola and Polyporus

The Lion’s Mane of the Genus Hericium

The Wood Ears of the Genus Auricularia

The Morels: Land-Fish Mushrooms of the Genus Morchella

The Morel Life Cycle

22. Maximizing the Substrate’s Potential through Species Sequencing

23. Harvesting, Storing, and Packaging the Crop for Market

24. Mushroom Recipes: Enjoying the Fruits of Your Labors

25. Cultivation problems & Their Solutions: A Troubleshoting guide

Appendices

I. Description of Environment for a Mushroom Farm

II. Designing and Building A Spawn Laboratory

III. The Growing Room: An Environment for Mushroom Formation & Development

IV. Resource Directory

V. Analyses of Basic Materials Used in Substrate Preparation

VI. Data Conversion Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Acknowledgments

OCR
150 GENERATING GRAIN SPAWN
dilution schedule described above efficiently
inoculates large volumes of grain in the creation
of grain masters. (30 ml. of inoculum is used to

rack for incubating
- 123. A space-e
grain spawn in jars. 340 112 gallon jars can be stored
on this 8' long x 8' high x 16" wide shelf system.
Spawn quality is improved by storing the jars at an
angle. (Earthquake sensitive.)

ml. of myceliated broth directly out of each Erlenmeyer into each half gallon jar of sterilized
grain. In time, an adept cultivator develops a
remarkably accurate ability to dispense liquid
spawn in consistently equal proportions. The
spawn maker's movements become rapid, repetitious, and highly rhythmic.*
One study, using a similar method (Yang and
Yong, 1987), showed that the hyphal clusters
averaged less than 2 mm. in diameter, and that
each milliliter contained 1000-3500 "hyphal
balls." The range of time for the maximum pro-

duction of hyphal clusters varied between
species, from two days to fourteen.The recommended inoculation rate was 15 ml. for each
250 grams of grain. For ease of handling, dis-

tribution and colonization, I find that the

inoculate 500-600 grams of grain in 2-liter or
1/2-gallon jars). Most of the wood decomposers described in this book flourish with the
aforementioned technique.
The lids to each container are replaced as
soon as they are inoculated. If the lids to each
jar are loosened prior to free-pouring, then one
hand lifts each lid, while the other hand, pours
the liquified mycelium into each jar, moving
side-to-side. If an assistant is present, the jars
are removed as soon as they are inoculated. As
they are removed each lid is tightly secured and
the jar is quickly shaken to evenly mix the liquid spawn through the grain. Each jar is stored
at an angle on a spawn rack. One person inoculating in this fashion can keep two people busy
"feeding" him newjars and removing those just
inoculated. Since this system is fast paced, the
time vector, the "window of vulnerability:' is
much less compared to the time-consuming, labor-intensive, traditional methods. The disadvantage of this technique, if there is one, is
that the stakes for the clumsy spawn producer
are higher. Any mistake will be amplified with
force. Should any one of the petri dish cultures
harbor contaminants, once that culture is placed
together in the Eberbach stirrer, all resulting
spawn jars will be contaminated. This is an allor-nothing technique. Fortunately, if following
the techniques outlined in this book, success is
*

for highly
accurate injections of liquid media without danger of
contamination.The Monostat Jr. Dispenser®
(#54947-110), equipped with a foot switch, delivers
shots of 10-50 ml. of liquid inocula per second
utilizing a 5/16 in. silicon tube. If equipped with a
multiple dispersion manifold, several spawn
containers at once can be inoculated with ease and
speed.
Various laboratory pumps can be used

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